Location: National Peanut Research Laboratory2022 Annual Report
Objective 1: Resolve underlying issues with commercial drying systems to decrease energy consumption, drying time, labor, and increase product uniformity. [NP306, C1, PS1A] Objective 2: Develop commercial management systems that enable improved aeration and headspace ventilation in farmers’ stock peanut storage to reduce post-harvest losses due to over drying, mold growth, aflatoxin contamination, and insect infestation. [NP306, C1, PS1A] Subobjective 2A. Develop decision support system to evaluate and manage farmers’ stock warehouses. Subobjective 2B. Develop instrumentation for early detection of fire in farmers’ stock warehouse. Objective 3: Develop innovative commercially-relevant peanut drying and handling systems to improve drying uniformity, aeration, and headspace ventilation in farmers’ stock that reduces/eliminates improper drying, mold growth, aflatoxin contamination, and insect infestation; and develop effective RNAi field delivery systems for peanuts. (NP 306; C1, PS 1A)
The post-harvest processing between the farm gate and the peanut product manufacturer can be broken down into several distinct unit operations. Two of these unit operations, drying at the first point of sale and bulk farmers’ stock storage prior to shelling have primary objectives of reducing and maintaining the peanut kernel moisture content at levels safe for storage, further processing, and handling. Advanced engineering modeling will be used to simulate the airflow and drying uniformity in existing drying systems and bulk farmers’ stock warehouses. The models will be used to design and guide construction and testing of prototype drying and aeration systems to improve product uniformity and storability. Existing data from commercial storage facilities and simulation models will guide the development of decision support systems for segregating and storing farmers’ stock peanuts and minimize deterioration during storage due to mold growth, increased aflatoxin contamination, and insect infestation. Laboratory experiments will determine the products of smoldering combustion of peanuts and sensors to detect those products selected or designed for the purpose of early fire detection in farmers’ stock warehouses. Molecules that induce RNA interference (RNAi) to interrupt the pre-harvest production of aflatoxin are under development in another research project. Conventional spraying, electrostatic spraying, and non-contact injection will be investigated as effective methods of delivering the RNAi molecules to the peanut plant.
Manuscript completed on the use of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model airflow through peanuts in drying trailer written, submitted, and published. Onsite tests of hopper trailer modified for drying peanuts was completed. Manuscript written, submitted, and published based on data. At stakeholders’ request, initiated collaboration with NASA-Langley to build and test a prototype dryer muffler. With addition of a universal testing machine, ARS scientists at Dawson, Georgia, conducted tests to measure hull strength of peanuts grown with different soil amendments in collaboration with University of Florida scientists. Received 5 years of peanut quality data through an Incoming Data Transfer Agreement and initiated collaborative work with the Partnership for Data Innovation to develop models to predict changes in quality during farmers stock storage.
Sorensen, R.B., Lamb, M.C., Butts, C.L. 2021. Corn yield as affected by row pattern, plant density, and irrigation system. Journal of Crop Improvement. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427528.2021.1980754.
Patel, J.D., Wang, M.L., Dang, P.M., Butts, C.L., Lamb, M.C., Chen, C.Y. 2022. Insights into the genomic architecture of seed and pod quality traits in the U.S. peanut mini-core diversity panel. Plants. 11(7):837. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070837.
Mcintyre, J.S., Butts, C.L., Read, Q.D. 2022. Computational fluid dynamics modeled air speed through in-shell peanuts in drying wagons compared to measured air speed. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 38(3):489-508. https://doi.org/10.13031/aea.14771.
Mcintyre, J.S., Turner, A.P., Teddy, B.E., Fogle, B., Butts, C.L., Kirk, K.R. 2022. Hopper-bottom semi-trailer modified for in-shell peanut drying: design, fabrication, and performance testing. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 38(3):477-488. https://doi.org/10.13031/aea.14869.