Location: Southeast Watershed Research
Project Number: 6048-22000-046-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Nov 24, 2020
End Date: Nov 23, 2025
1. Assess spatial and temporal distribution of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and whitefly species and their natural enemies relative to environmental and ecological factors in cropping systems and on host plants in surrounding natural areas and field borders and develop a model that will guide decisions on pest management. [NP304, C3, PS3A, 3B and 3C] 1.A. Determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, relative to environmental factors within cropping systems and nearby non-crop hosts in field borders and adjacent natural areas. 1.B. Determine the suitability of treatments with low risk to beneficial insects such selective insect growth regulator insecticides, predatory mites, and biochemical insecticides, to manage the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. 2. Evaluate parasitism and predation of BMSB and indigenous stink bugs by parasitoids and predators in crop and non-crop habitats. [NP304, C3, PS3A, 3B and 3C] 2.A. Assess parasitism and predation of BMSB and indigenous stink bugs by parasitoids and predators in orchard, vineyard, vegetable, and row crop farmscapes and non-crop hosts in nearby woodlands in the southeastern USA. 2.B. Develop floral habitat to enhance biological control of BMSB and indigenous stink bugs in farmscapes. 3. Develop optimal native wildflower habitat and other floral resources near crop fields for provisioning of resources and refuge sites that increase pollinator abundance, diversity, and pollination of nearby crops, such as initially in cotton and peanut, with potential applications to other pollinator-dependent crops. [NP304, C3, PS3A, 3B and 3C] 3.A. Determine the abundance and diversity of wild bee pollinators utilizing mixed wildflowers, cover crops, cropping systems and field borders, and naturally occurring areas to determine which species is utilizing which floral resource. 4. Improve current and evaluate novel weed management techniques for traditional and organic row, vegetable, and perennial cropping systems produced throughout the southeastern United States. 4.A. Determine if applications of various organic herbicides can provide economic weed control. 4.B. Evaluate interactions between prohexadione calcium and various postemergence herbicides when applied as a tank-mixture. 5. Develop a better understanding of the influence edaphic and environmental factors have on the fate of chemical and non-chemical weed control practices to improve crop and ecological safety while maintaining grower profitability and sustainability. 5.A. Determine the thermal stability and activation energy of various organic herbicides in aqueous solution. 5.B. Quantify the impact drying time has on the movement of herbicides applied over-the-top of mulch covered vegetable beds. 5.C. Assess the potential use of an organic soil amendment for reducing residual herbicide injury to Brassica carinata.
The spatial and temporal distribution of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and its natural enemies relative to environmental factors will be assessed in cropping systems (row; corn, cotton, peanut, soybean, and vegetable; squash, pepper, eggplant, etc. crops), and on host plants in borders and natural areas. Treatments of low risk to beneficial insects (2 insect growth regulators, 4 species of predatory mites, and 2 biochemical insecticides) will be evaluated for their suitability to control whitefly outbreaks. Also, the spatiotemporal patterns of indigenous stink bugs and the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, will be assessed in 2-3 orchard, row crop, and non-crop habitats. Sampling will be conducted using whole plant and drop cloth samples and stink bug traps. Evaluation of parasitism and predation of stink bug eggs will be assessed using natural and sentinel egg masses in crop and non-crop hosts in 2-3 blueberry, apple, peach, and pecan orchards, 2-3 grape vineyards, 2-3 vegetable farms, and 2-3 row crop farms. Abundance, diversity, and potential for crop pollination by wild bee pollinators will be assessed. Sampling will be conducted using blue vane bee traps and sweep netting in wildflowers, cover crops, crops, field borders, and natural areas. Species of bees will be identified. Metabarcoding will be used on pollen samples collected from each species to determine which species is utilizing which floral resource. The potential for utilizing organic herbicides in economical weed management programs will be assessed in various runner-type peanut cultivars and 6-8 common and troublesome weed species in greenhouse and field experiments. Tank-mixtures of prohexadione calcium (plant growth regulator) and 2-4 postemergence herbicides will be evaluated in 2-3 runner-type peanut cultivars and 6-8 weed species in greenhouse and field experiments. The influence of edaphic and environmental factors on chemical and organic weed control products will be assessed on 8-10 herbicides in row, specialty, and non-crop areas.