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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

Daniel Z Skinner (Dan)

Research Leader


 

Research Specialty and Interests

 /ARSUserFiles/5215/images/Dan with title.jpg
 

Wheat gene expression dynamics in Response to cold temperature

Physiological Response of Wheat During the Freezing Process

Inheritance of Freezing Stress Tolerance

Developing Winter Hardy Wheat Germplasm

 Red Fungus Turned Orange May Help Tackle Vitamin Deficiency

Each year, about 10% of the fields planted to winter wheat in the US are not harvested because the plants fail to survive the winter. We investigate the response of wheat plants to all phases of the freezing process, from cold-acclimation at low, above-freezing temperatures, to tolerance of deep freezing. We have found that plants adjust to each part of the freezing process; a one-degree difference may make the difference between life and death. We identify genes involved in this freezing tolerance, and then find plants that express these genes very well, resulting in wheat germplasm with improved freezing tolerance.

Education:

Ph.D., Kansas State University, Plant Pathology, 1987

M.S., Kansas State University, Plant Pathology, 1984

B.A., Biology-Botany, St. Cloud State University, 1978

 

Professional Experience:

2001 to present: Agricultural Research Service (ARS) - Research Geneticist and Research Leader, Wheat Genetics: Quality Physiology and Disease Research Unit, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

1990-2001: Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS and Agronomy Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

1987-1990: Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Plant Pathology

 

Current Research Assignment:

Genetic Improvement of Wheat and Barley for Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

 

Awards:

Freidrich Competitive Scholarship, St. Cloud State University, 1977

Member Phi Kappa Phi -1976

Member Gamma Sigma Delta - 1990

Outstanding Paper Award, Crop Science Society of America, 1999.

Best Research Paper of the year, Weed Science Society of America, 2005.

USDA-ARS Award for outstanding service to the agency, 2007

 

Grants received:

         Development of novel crop varieties to battle wind and water erosion in the Palouse. S. Hulbert, D. Skinner, K. McPhee, H. Kok, R.C. Johnson, K.Garland-Campbell. Washington State University Ag. Research Center. 2007. $19,000 total (6 mos.).

         Characterization of a potential bi-directional promoter region between a stress-responsive gene and a signal transduction gene in wheat. 2006. D. Z. Skinner. USDA Postdoctoral Research Associate Program. $100,000 total (2 years).

         Enhancing Beta-carotene production in the red rice fungus. 2001. D. Z. Skinner. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. $45,000 total (3 years).

         Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) identification, hybridization and introgression. M. J. Horak, D. Z. Skinner and P. Kulakow. 1997.  National Research Initiatives, US Dept. Agriculture. $120,000 total (2 years).

         Development of an alfalfa genome database.  D. Z. Skinner. 1994. Plant Genome Project-USDA. $30,000 total (3 years).

         Cytogenetic approaches to food animal gene mapping.  D. L. Troyer and D. Z. Skinner. 1992. National Research Initiatives. $219,000 total (2 years).

         Risk of transgenic alfalfa dissemination during seed production. D. Z. Skinner. 1993. $48,000 total (1 year) USDA Postdoctoral Research Associate Program.

         Risk of transgenic alfalfa dissemination during seed production.  D. Z. Skinner and R. N. Peaden. 1994. $72,000 total (2 year).  USDA and CSREES Biotechnology Risk Assessment Program.

         Biolistic gametophyte transformation of alfalfa. D. Z. Skinner and G. H. Liang.  1993.  National Research Initiatives, US Dept. Agriculture.  $50,000 total (1 year).

         Alfalfa Research In Kansas.  J. O. Fritz, D. Z. Skinner and R. C. Cochrane.  1992.  $480,000 total (4 years).  USDA Special Grants Program.

         Genetic distances in the alfalfa core collection. D. Z. Skinner. Alfalfa Crop Germplasm Committee. 1997. $10,000.

List of Projects and Publications

Professional Refereed Publications

Skinner, D.Z., Bellinger, B.S. 2016. Freezing tolerance of winter wheat as influenced by extended growth at low temperature and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. doi: 10.1139/CJPS-2016-0154

Evans, M.A., Skinner, D.Z., Koenig, R.T., Hulbert, S.H., and Pan, W.L. 2016. Effect of phosphorus, potassium, and chloride nutrition on cold tolerance of winter canola (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition 39, 1112–1122.

Skinner, D.Z., Bellinger, B.S. 2016. Freezing tolerance of winter wheat as influenced by extended growth at low temperature and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. doi: 10.1139/CJPS-2016-0154

Skinner DZ. 2015. Genes Upregulated in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) During Mild Freezing and Subsequent Thawing Suggest Sequential Activation of Multiple Response Mechanisms. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 14;10(7):e0133166. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133166.

Cuevas, C., Bellinger, B.S., Skinner, D.Z. 2014. Membrane stability of winter wheat plants exposed to subzero temperatures for variable lengths of time. Communications in Plant Sciences. 5(1-2):9-14.

Skinner, D.Z., Bellinger, B.S., Hansen, J.C., Kennedy, A.C. 2014. Carbohydrate and lipid dynamics in wheat crown tissue in response to mild freeze-thaw treatments. Crop Science. 54:1–8. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2013.09.0604

Case, A. J., D. Z. Skinner, K. A. Garland-Campbell, and A. H. Carter. 2014. Freezing Tolerance-Associated Quantitative Trait Loci in the Brundage × Coda Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Population. Crop Sci. 54:982-992. doi:10.2135/cropsci2013.08.0526

Skinner, D. Z. 2014. Time and Temperature Interactions in Freezing Tolerance of Winter Wheat. Crop Sci. 54:1523-1529. doi:10.2135/cropsci2013.09.0623

Skinner DZ, Garland-Campbell K. 2014. Measuring freezing tolerance: survival and regrowth assays. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1166:7-13. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-0844-8_2.

Zhu J, Pearce S, Burke A, See DR, Skinner DZ, Dubcovsky J, Garland-Campbell K. 2014. Copy number and haplotype variation at the VRN-A1 and central FR-A2 loci are associated with frost tolerance in hexaploid wheat. Theor Appl Genet. 2014 May;127(5):1183-97. doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2290-2.

Kwang-Hyun, B., Skinner, D.Z. 2012. Production of reactive oxygen species by freezing stress and the protective roles of antioxidant enzymes in plants. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment. 1:34-40. doi:10.4236/jacen.2012.11006.

Skinner D.Z. 2012. Genetics of winter wheat response to two freezing treatments. Plant Breeding 131:380-384.

Beecher, B.S., Skinner, D.Z. 2011. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels. Journal of Cereal Science 53:371-378.

Skinner D.Z., Bellinger B.S. 2011. Differential response of wheat cultivars to components of the freezing process in saturated soil. Crop Science 51:69-74.

Baek, K-H., Skinner, D.Z. 2010. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Sequence Variants of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Genes from Wheat. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture. 29:77-85.

Okubara, P.A., Call, D.R., Kwak, Y., Skinner, D.Z. 2010. Induction of defense gene homologues in wheat roots during interactions with pseudomonas fluorescens. Biological Control. 55:118-125.

Skinner D.Z., Bellinger B.S. 2010. Exposure to subfreezing temperature and a freeze-thaw cycle affect freezing tolerance of winter wheat in saturated soil. Plant and Soil 332:289-297.

Skinner D.Z., Mackey B. 2009. Freezing tolerance of winter wheat plants frozen in saturated soil. Field Crops Research 113:335-341.

Skinner D.Z. 2009. Post-acclimation transcriptome adjustment is a major factor in freezing tolerance of winter wheat. Functional & Integrative Genomics 9:513-523.

Skinner, D. Z. 2009. Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat. Crop Science. 49:323-328.

Skinner, D.Z., and K.A. Garland-Campbell. 2008. The relationship of LT50 to prolonged freezing survival in winter wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 88:885-889.

Skinner, D.Z., and K.A. Garland-Campbell. 2008. Evidence of a major genetic factor conditioning freezing sensitivity in winter wheat. Plant Breed. 127:228-234.

Baek, K.H., D.Z. Skinner, P. Ling, and X. Chen. 2006. Molecular structure and organization of the wheat genomic manganese superoxide dismutase gene. Genome 49:209-218.

Baek, K.H., and D.Z. Skinner. 2006. Differential mRNA stability to endogenous ribonucleases of the coding region and 3' untranslated regions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) manganese superoxide dismutase genes. Plant Cell Rep. 25:133-139.

Baek, K.H., and D.Z. Skinner. 2006. Differential expression of manganese superoxide dismutase sequence variants in near isogenic lines of wheat during cold acclimation. Plant Cell Rep. 25:223-230.

Skinner, D.Z., P.A. Okubara, K.H. Baek, and D.R. Call. 2005. Long oligonucleotide microarrays in wheat: evaluation of hybridization signal amplification and an oligonucleotide-design computer script. Funct. Integ. Genomics 5:70-79.

Bellinger, B.S. and D. Z. Skinner. 2005. PCR-Based chloroplast DNA fragment length polymorphisms as a method for cultivar identification in alfalfa. Genetic Resources and Biotechnology. 3:327-342.

Skinner, D.Z., B.S. Bellinger, S. Halls, K.H. Baek, K. Garland-Campbell, and W.F. Siems. 2005. Phospholipid acyl chain and phospholipase dynamics during cold acclimation of winter wheat. Crop science 45:1858-1867.

Baek, K.H., and D.Z. Skinner. 2004. Quantitative real-time PCR method to detect changes in specific transcript and total RNA amounts. Electronic journal of biotechnology v. 7, no. 1. Available online at: http://ejbiotechnology.ucv.cl/content/vol7/issue1/full/5/index.html.

Lakrod, K., Chaisrisook, C. and Skinner, D. Z. 2003. Expression of pigmentation genes following electroporation of albino Monascus purpureus. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 30: 369-374. 5

Lakrod, K., Chaisrisook, C. and Skinner, D. Z. 2003. Transformation of Monascus purpureus to hygromycin B resistance with cosmid pMOcosX reduces fertility. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 6 No. 2, Available online at: http://www.ejbiotechnology.cl/content/vol6/issue2/full/3/index.html.

Baek, K.H., and D.Z. Skinner. 2003. Alteration of antioxidant enzyme gene expression during cold acclimation of near-isogenic wheat lines. Plant Sci. 165:1221-1227.

Steinau, A.N., D.Z. Skinner, and M. Steinau. 2003. Mechanism of extreme genetic recombination in weedy Amaranthus hybrids. Weed Sci. 51:696-701. *Outstanding Paper in Weed Science Award, 2004, Weed Science Society of America.

Cordero, J.C., and D.Z. Skinner. 2002. Isolation from alfalfa of resistance gene analogues containing nucleotide binding sites. Theor. Appl. Genet. 104:1283-1289.

Hays, D.B., and D.Z. Skinner. 2001. Development of an expressed sequence tag (EST) library for Medicago sativa. Plant Sci. 161:517-526.

Franssen, A.S., D.Z. Skinner, K. Al-Khatib, M.J. Horak, and P.A. Kulakow. 2001. Interspecific hybridization and gene flow of ALS resistance in Amaranthus species. Weed Sci. 49:598-606.

Franssen, A.S., D.Z. Skinner, K. Al-Khatib, and M.J. Horak. 2001. Pollen morphological differences in Amaranthus species and interspecific hybrids. Weed Sci. 49:732-737.

St Amand, P.C., D.Z. Skinner, and R.N. Peaden. 2000. Risk of alfalfa transgene dissemination and scale-dependent effects. Theor. Appl. Genet. 101:107-114.

Skinner, D.Z. 2000. Nonrandom chloroplast DNA hypervariability in Medicago sativa. Theor. Appl. Genet. 101:1242-1249.

Skinner, D.Z., T. Loughin, and D.E. Obert. 2000. Segregation and conditional probability association of molecular markers with traits in autotetraploid alfalfa. Molecular breeding. 6:295-306.

Obert, D.E.,D.Z. Skinner, and D.L. Stuteville. 2000. Association of AFLP markers with downy mildew resistance in autotetraploid alfalfa. Molecular breeding. 6:287-294.

Lakrod, K, C. Chaisrisook, B. Yongsmith and D. Z. Skinner. 2000. RAPD analysis of genetic variation vithin a collection of red rice fungi (Monascus spp.) isolated from red rice (ang-kak) and sofu. Mycological Research. 104:403-408.

Yu, T.T., Skinner, D.Z., Liang, G.H., Trick, H.N., Huang, B., Muthukrishnan, S. 2000. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of creeping bentgrass using GFP as a reporter gene. Hereditas 133:229-233.

Wetzel, H.C. III, Skinner, D,Z,, and Tisserat, N.A. 1999. Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of three Ophiosphaerella species that cause spring dead spot of bermudagrass. Plant Dis. 83:1160-1166.

Wetzel, D.K., Horak, M.J., Skinner, D.Z. and Kulakow P.A. 1999. Transferal of herbicide resistance traits from Amaranthus palmeri to Amaranthus rudis. Weed Science. 47:538-543.

Wetzel, D.K., Horak, M.J.,and Skinner, D.Z. 1999. Use of PCR-based molecular markers to identify weedy Amaranthus species. Weed Science. 47:518-523.

Skinner, D.Z., G.R Bauchan, G. Auricht, and S. Hughes. 1999. A Method for the efficient management and utilization of large germplasm collections. Crop Sci. 39:1237-1242. *Outstanding paper award, Crop Science Society of America, 1999.

Kelemu, S., D. Z. Skinner, J. L. Badel, C. X. Moreno, M. X. Rodriguez, C. D. Fernandes, M. J. Charchar, and S. Chakraborty. 1999. Biodiversity in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from Stylosanthes guianensis, a tropical forage legume. Eur. J. Plant. Pathol. 105:261-272.

Liang, G. H., D. Z. Skinner, and S. Muthukrishnan. 1998. Crop improvement using microprojectile bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Trends in Agron. 1:53-71.

Ramaiah, S. M., and D. Z. Skinner. 1997. Particle bombardment: A simple and efficient method of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) pollen transformation. Curr. Sci. 73:674-681.

Rooney, W. L., D. Z. Skinner, and J. O. Fritz. 1997. Combining ability for protein degradability in alfalfa. Crop Sci. 37: 127-131.

Vera Cruz, C. M., E. Y. Ardales, D. Z. Skinner, J. Talag, R J. Nelson, F. J. Louws, H. Leung, T. W. Mew, and J. E. Leach. 1996. Measurement of haplotypic variation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae within a single field by Rep-PCR and RFLP Analyses. Phytopathology 86:1352-1359.

Vera Cruz, C. M., L. Halda, F. Louws, D. Z. Skinner, M. L. George, R J. Nelson, F. J. deBruijn, C. Rice, and J. E. Leach.1996. Repetitive sequence-based PCR of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Pseudomonas species. Intl. Rice Res. Notes. 20:23 24.

Guo, J.,D. Z. Skinner, and G. H. Liang. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of Sorghum taxa inferred from mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment analysis. Genome: 39:1027 1034.

Weiqi, L.,D. Z. Skinner, and G. H. Liang. 1996. An efficient method of isolating mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA from higher plants. Curr. Science. 70:78-80.

Coblentz, W. K, J. O. Fritz, K K. Bolsen, D. Z. Skinner, and R C. Cochrane. 1995. Degradation by ficin of protein from alfalfa hay conserved as conventional and laboratory-scale bales. Agron.J. 87:721-730.

Adhikari, T. B., Vera Cruz, C. M., Zhang, Q., Nelson, R. J., Skinner, D. Z. , Mew, T. W. and Leach, J. E. 1995. Genetic diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Asia. Appl. and Envir. Microbiol. 61:966-971.

Skinner, D. Z. , and Stuteville, D. L. 1995. Expansion of the host range of the alfalfa rust pathogen. Plant Disease 79:456 460.

Chaisrisook, C.,Skinner, D. Z. and Stuteville, D. L. 1995. Molecular genetic relationships of Stemphylium species infecting alfalfa. Sydowia 47:193-201

Chaisrisook, C., Stuteville, D. L. and Skinner, D. Z. 1995. Five Stemphylium species pathogenic to alfalfa; Occurrence in the US and time requirements for ascospore production. Plant Disease79:369-372.

Skinner, D. Z. and Camacho, R. F. 1995. Genetic diversity within a potato leafhopper (Homoptera:Cicadellidae) population infesting alfalfa. Journal Kansas Entomol. Soc. 68:35-42.

Skinner, D. Z. , Fritz, J. O. and Klocke, L. L. 1994. Protein degradability in a diverse array of alfalfa germplasm sources. Crop Sci. 34: 1396-1399.

Sun, Y., Skinner, D. Z. , Liang, G. H. and Hulbert, S. 1994. Phylogenetic analysis of Sorghum and related taxa using internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Theor. Appl. Genet. 89:26-32.

Troyer, D. L., Xie, H., Goad, D. W., and Skinner, D. Z. 1994. Use of a new technique to map the porcine alpha-interferon gene to chromosome 1. Mammalian Genome 5: 112-114.

Sorensen, E. L., Stuteville, D. L., Horber, E. K., and Skinner, D. Z. 1994. Registration of KS223 alfalfa germplasm with resistance to four diseases and three insects. Crop Sci. 34:312.

Sorensen, E. L., Stuteville, D. L., Horber, E. K., and Skinner, D. Z. 1994. Registration of KS224 glandular-haired alfalfa germplasm with multiple pest resistance. Crop Sci. 34:544.

Sorensen, E. L., Stuteville, D. L., Horber, E. K., and Skinner, D. Z. 1993. Registration of KS222 multiple pest-resistant alfalfa germplasm derived from 'Anchor' alfalfa Crop Sci. 33:887.

Sorensen, E. L., Stuteville, D. L., Horber, E. K, Peaden, R N., and Skinner, D. Z. 1993. Registration of KS221 multiple pest-resistant alfalfa germplasm. Crop Sci. 33:886-887.

Sorensen, E. L., Stuteville, D. L., Horber, E. K., Peaden, R. N., and Skinner, D. Z. 1993. Registration of KS 220 multiple pest-resistant alfalfa germplasm. Crop Sci. 33:218.

Skinner, D. Z. , Budde, A. D., Farman, M. L., Smith, J. R, Leung, H., and Leong, S. A. 1993. Genome organization of Magnaporthe grisea: Genetic map, electrophoretic karyotype, and occurrence of repeated DNAs. Theor. Appl. Genet. 87:545-557.

Sorensen, E. L., Stuteville, D. L., Horber, E. K., and Skinner, D. Z. 1992. Registration of KS219 alfalfa germplasm with resistance to eight pests. Crop Sci. 32:502-503.

Budde, A. D., J. R Smith, M. L. Farman, D. Z. Skinner, and S. A. Leong. 1993. Genetic map and molecular karyotype of the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea (n=6). In Genetic Maps. Locus maps of complex genomes. 6th ed. S. J. O'Brien (ed.) Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

Skinner, D. Z. and Stuteville, D. L. 1992. Geographical variation in alfalfa accessions for resistance to two isolates of Peronospora trifoliorum. Crop Sci. 32:1467-1470.

Skinner, D. Z. 1992. A PCR-Based Method of Identifying Species-specific Repeated DNAs. Biotechniques. 13:210-213.

Skinner, D. Z. , and Leong, S. A. 1990. A Lotus 1-2-3 macro system to analyze segregation data of haploids. Fung. Genet. Newslet. 37:40.

Leung, H., Lehtinen, U., Karjalainen, R., Skinner, D., Tooley, P., Leong, S., and Ellingboe, A. 1990. Transformation of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea to hygromycin B resistance. Curr. Genetics 17:409-411.

Skinner, D. Z. , and Stuteville, D. L. 1989. Accumulation of minor gene resistance to Peronospora trifoliorum in diploid alfalfa. Phytopathology. 79:721-724.

Skinner, D. Z. , and Stuteville, D. L. 1989. The influence of temperature on expression of resistance to rust in diploid alfalfa Crop Sci. 29:675-677.

Skinner, D. Z. , and Stuteville, D. L. 1988. Polygenes in diploid alfalfa that affect resistance to downy mildew. Crop Sci. 28:508-511.

Skinner, D. Z. , and Stuteville, D. L. 1988. GDA: A computer program to analyze a diallel cross of homozygous or heterozygous parents. J. Hered. 79:215-216.

Stuteville, D. L., and Skinner, D. Z. 1987. Effect of selecting for downy mildew resistance in alfalfa on saponin content. Crop Sci. 27:906-908.

Skinner, D. Z. , and Stuteville, D. L. 1985. Genetics of host-parasite interactions between alfalfa and Peronospora trifoliorum. Phytopathology 75: 119-121.

Skinner, D. Z., and Stuteville, D. L. 1985. Quantitatively inherited reactions of alfalfa to Peronospora trifoliorum. Phytopathology 75:717-721.

Johnson, L. B., Stuteville, D. L., Schlarbaum, S. C., and Skinner, D.Z. 1984. Variation in phenotype and chromosome number in alfalfa protoclones regenerated from nonmutagenized calli. Crop Sci. 24:948-951.

Johnson, L. B., Stuteville, D. L., Higgins, R K., and Skinner, D. Z. 1981. Regeneration of alfalfa plants from protoplasts of selected Regen S clones. Plant Sci. Lett. 20:297-304.

Stuteville, D. L., and Skinner, D. Z. 1980. Control of downy mildew and Phytophthora root rot of alfalfa seedlings with seed treatment. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 35: 171 172.

Professional Nonrefereed Publications

Skinner, D. Z. 1987. Diversity and specificity in minor-gene resistance of diploid alfalfa to Peronospora trifoliorum. Kansas State Univ. 57 pp. (Dissertation).

Skinner, D. Z., Leung, H., and Leong, S. A. 1990. Genetic map of the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea (n=6). p. 3.82-3.83 In Genetic Maps. Locus maps of complex genomes. 5th ed. S. J. O'Brien (ed.) Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

Skinner, D. Z. , Budde, A. D., and Leong, S. A. 1991. Molecular karyotype analysis of fungi. p. 86-103 In More Gene Manipulations in Fungi. J. W. Bennett and L. A. Lasure (eds.). Academic Press, Orlando, FL. (Invited book chapter).

Liang, G. H., Skinner, D. Z., Sun, Y. and Sorensen, E. L. 1995. The discovery of Mendels laws. Pages 145-162 In: Discoveries in Plant Biology. S.D. Kung and S.F. Yang (eds.) World Scientific Publishers, Hackensack, NJ, USA.

Skinner, D. Z., and G. H. Liang. 1996. Haploidy in alfalfa. Pages 365-376 In: In vitro haploid production in higher plants. S. M. Jain, S. K. Sopory, R. E. Veilleux, (eds.) Kluwer Academic Press. (Invited book chapter).

Skinner, D.Z., G.R. Bauchan, G. Auricht and S. Hughes. 1999. Developing a core collection from a large annual Medicago germplasm collection. Pages 61-67 In: Core Collections for Today and Tomorrow. R. C. Johnson and T. Hodgkin (eds.). The International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. (Invited book chapter).

Skinner D. Z., Muthukrishnan S. and Liang, G. H. 2004. Transformation: A powerful tool for crop improvement.  Pages 1-16 In: Genetically modified crops.  Their development, uses and risks.  G.H Liang and D. Z. Skinner (eds.). Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY, USA.

Liang, G.H., and D.Z. Skinner (Editors). 2004. Genetically Modified Crops: Their Development, Uses, and Risks. 394 pages. Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY, USA.

Skinner, D.Z. 2005. Genetically Modified Planet. J. Environ. Qual. 34: 2335-2336. (Invited book review).

Skinner, D.Z. 2006. Plant Abiotic Stress. J. Environ. Qual. 35:955-956. (Invited book review).


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