Skip to main content
ARS Home » Southeast Area » Charleston, South Carolina » Vegetable Research » Docs » CGC » Vegetable Improvement Newsletter No. 8, February 1966

Vegetable Improvement Newsletter No. 8, February 1966
headline bar

Compiled by H.M. Munger, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

1. Guidelines For Naming Vegetable Varieties

P.A. Minges

The Vegetable Breeding and Variety Committee of the A.S.H.S. at the annual meeting held at Urbana, August 1966, approved four guidelines for naming new vegetable varieties. Voluntary acceptance and application of these suggestions could lead to improved clarity in variety naming, reduce chances for confusion and perhaps obviate any need for additional governmental control.

The four suggestions on naming varieties are:

  1. Discontinue the use of the term "Hybrid" as a functional part of a variety name.
  2. Use numbers for breeding lines only and apply a word name when the line is released for sale or formally introduced.
  3. Keep variety names as short as possible by avoiding unnecessary words.
  4. Discourage use of trade names as part of the formal name.

The Garden Seed Research Committee of the A.S.T.A. has endorsed the first three guidelines and urge their consideration by all vegetable breeders. This committee was reluctant to endorse the fourth suggestion since this has been a common practice among commercial seed firms.

Using the term "Hybrid" as a formal part of the name is unnecessary and can lead to confusion. For example, Challenger Hybrid is the official name of this popular cucumber variety and it could be possible for another variety either hybrid or not to be named Challenger. If this happened confusion could arise in two ways: (1) the idea would tend to prevail that the second variety resembled the first and (2) identification could become difficult because of the tendency for people to abbreviate the Challenger Hybrid name to Challenger. The same factors can lead to confusion when the term "Hybrid" is added to the name of an established variety like Rutgers or Pearson. Such confusion could result in harm to growers especially if the two varieties are quite distinct in type or performance. In several crops such as sweet corn and onions, use of the term "Hybrid" in names already has been almost completely eliminated.

It is often difficult to distinguish between advanced breeding lines and formally released lines when numbers and especially the same numbers are used for both. It is also easier, in general, for people to correctly recall the names than numbers especially when three digits or more are involved. This guideline need not conflict with the practice of adding numbers (usually simple ones of one or two digits) to standard names to indicate improvement in an older variety.

Trade names become awkward in making recommendations, especially when the variety is available from only one source as is the case for many hybrids with closed pedigrees. Also, chance for confusion increases when several new varieties of one crop appear with very similar names or the same name is used in naming varieties of several different crops, especially if they are introduced within a fairly short time interval.

A feeling prevails among seedsmen and other people interested in the vegetable seed industry that unless voluntary policing of variety naming can eliminate problem situations, some initiation of government regulation may be forthcoming. Most people prefer the voluntary procedure so let us make it work.

2. Bees in Pollination Cages

W.C. Barnes

Last year we reported on placing bees in pollination cages with hive openings outside as well as into the cages. Broccoli within flight distance of cabbage cages created no problem. One questionable incident involves monoecious cucumbers immediately adjacent to a cage of gynoecious where pollen was in short supply. Thus it now appears the practice is safe so long as foreign pollen is not available immediately adjacent to the cages. This method prevents much of the loss of feeder bees that occurs when colonies are restricted to the cage area and permits a near normal feeding territory for the hive. Strong hives have been used whereas such would be tragic if confined.

3. Inheritance of Resistance to Race 1 and 2 of Downy Mildew in Broccoli

M.H. Dickson and J.J. Natti

Resistance to downy mildew race 1 was earlier found by Natti to be due to a single dominant gene. The resistance was obtained from P.I. 189028. When resistant progeny were grown in the field some plants were again found infected with mildew. On testing this was found to be a race different to the original and was called race 2.

P.I.'s 245015 and 231210 were found to contain resistance to both race 1 and 2. The resistance to race 2 not being as good as for race 1. In crossing with a broccoli line CR it was apparent that the double resistance was due to two single independent dominant genes as shown in the following table.

Geneva Sel.P.I. No.
145-1 x CR 
CR x 145-1 

Small samples of F2 seed segregating for resistance are available to brassica breeders.

4. Clubroot Resistant Cauliflower and Cabbage Breeding Material Available from the University of Maryland

R.J. Snyder

Ninety-one Brassica oleraceae plant introductions obtained from the USDA Plant Introduction Station at Geneva, N.Y. were subjected to infestation of Plasmodophora brassicae (Wor.) under greenhouse and field conditions. Of the plant introduction material the following lines either segregated for resistance or were not badly clubbed: PI 183213 (cauliflower?), PI 208474 (cauliflower), PI 208484 (cauliflower), PI 232070 (cauliflower), PI 236257 (Var. Viridis), PI 236258 (Var. Viridis), PI 236259 (Var. Viridis), PI 250127 (cauliflower?), PI 250423 (cabbage) and PI 261642 (cabbage). Many P.I. numbers received as cauliflower were found to be intermediate Brassica oleraceae types. For this reason a question mark follows the Brassica type in certain cases.

Lines received from other sources are listed in Table 1. Cabbage lines B 1 and B 11 were practically immune to clubroot and were originally obtained from Walker and Larson of the University of Wisconsin. F1 progenies from these resistant lines crossed with highly susceptible cauliflower lines, segregated resistant and susceptible plants. The percentage of resistant plants in the B 1 crosses was 64% in the B 11 crosses it was 46%. In backcrosses and selfed progenies involving B1 and susceptible cauliflower, a high degree of resistance was maintained (Table 2). In 13 crosses where both parent lines were susceptible to clubroot, all F1 progeny were susceptible.

As a result of this testing work, 23 lines carrying alleles for clubroot resistance and cabbage and cauliflower types are available to all qualified plant breeders. These lines for distribution are listed in Table 3. When requesting seeds, it is necessary only to give the Maryland line number.

Table 1. Sources and Brassica types of Maryland accessions.

Maryland accession
Brassica type
Stock No.
B 1
Inst. of Plant Breeding, Wageningen Holland

F1 8353T Larson- 55202

B 2
F2 (Z1 - M1) 55158
B 3
Fz1 Wisc. Golden Acre 54147
B 5
F2 ( 1 - M1) 55169
B 8
Alpha Vreeken 55175
B 9
Var. x A No. 235
B 10
Munger, Cornell University

(Cabbage x Kale)


54-83-3 x Early Cab.

B 11
Walker, Univ. of Wisconsin
Snowball Imperial
Harris Seed Company
No. 339


Table 2. Numbers of diseased and healthy plants in backcross and selfed progenies involving resistant B 1 cabbage and susceptible cauliflower.

Number diseased
Number healthy
% resistance
Horticulture type
(B 1 x B 8) Self
Seg. Caulif. Types
(B 1 x B 8) B 8
(B 1 x B 8)
Snowball Imp.
B 8 (Check)
Snowball Imp.


Table 3. List of University of Maryland breeding lines segregating for clubroot resistance and cauliflower and/or other Brassica types.

Line no.
Line no.
Md. 1Bx-59-6 x #2Md. 13(B 1 x 55175) x Md. Resist. Hybrid
Md. 2Bx-59-6 x #3Md. 14(B 1 x 55175) x 55175
Md. 3Bx-59-6 x #4Md. 15(B 11 x 55175) x 55175
Md. 4Bx-59-6 x #5Md. 16(B 1 x 55175) S1
Md. 5Bx-59-6 x #6Md. 17(B 2 x 55175) S1
Md. 6Bx-59-6 x #8Md. 18(B 11 x 55175) S1
Md. 7Bx-59-6 x #9Md. 19(Md. Resistant Hybrid) S1
Md. 8Bx-59-10 x #1Md. 20(Md. Resistant Hybrid) Snowball Imp.
Md. 9 Bx-59-15 x #1Md. 21(B 1 x P.I. 209751) S1
Md. 1059-6 x Snowball Imperial x #3Md. 22(B 1 x P.I. 209756) S1
Md. 1159-6 x Snowball Imperial x #5Md. 23(B 1 x P.I. 209757) S1
Md. 12Bx-59-14 x Snowball Imperial  

5. Evidence for Genetic Tendencies in Carrot Splitting

D.R. Bienz

Department of Horticulture, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

Seed from two self-pollinated split carrot roots (SP631 and SP632) of the Red-Cored Chantenay variety was planted at two locations in eastern Washington in plots paired with plots planted from bulked seed from the same source. Roots were thinned to at least 8 inches in order to increase the opportunity from splitting. The percentage of splitting, based on number of roots, which occurred in the progeny of the split roots compared to the percentage in paired check plots in as follows:


For both progenies the percentage of split roots was statistically greater at the 5% level the percentage for the check.

Within the 1965 carrot variety trial in eastern Washington, Red-Cored Chantenay selections from 3 different companies were grown. The percentage of splitting based on weight was 11.4, 18.2, and 28.2 respectively for the 3 selections. The third value is statistically greater than either the first or second . Variation in the percentage of splitting among the other varieties in the trial was in many instances even greater.

This data suggests that there is a heritable factor which predisposes carrots to splitting. Work is presently underway to attempt to identify chemical differences associated with the tendency to split. Also a number of sound, well-shaped, Red-Cored Chantenay roots have been saved as the beginning of a program to select a line with roots which have less of a tendency to split.

6. Natural Cross Pollination in the Cucumber.

R. W. Robinson and W. Mischance

N.Y. State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York.

Individual cucumber plants, recessive for the glabrous (gal) gene, were planted in a large field of normal plants. The glabrous plants were at least 25 feet from each other, making cross-pollination between them unlikely. Progeny from these plants, therefore, should be glabrous if produced by self-pollination and normal if cross pollinated. Some of the glabrous plants were andromonoecious and others monoecious, making it possible to study the influence of sex type on the extent of natural cross-pollination.

We expected the amount of self-pollination with monoecious plants to be similar to the amount reported in the literature, approximately 30-35 percent, and surmised there would be more self-pollination with the andromonoecious plants, Surprisingly, however, there was 100% cross-pollination with both sex types. The 112 plants in the open-pollinated progeny of 3 monoecious parents were all normal as were the 63 plants from 2 andromonoecious parents; none of the progeny was glabrous.

Glabrous plants have proven fertile in controlled pollinations and have occurred in expected ratios in segregating generations. There is no reason to believe the apparent lack of natural self-pollination was due to differential fertility or viability. Apparently there may be a greater amount of natural cross-pollination of cucumbers than previously suspected.

7. Angular Leafspot Resistance of Cucumber

W.C. Barnes

Clemson University Truck Experiment Station, Charleston, South Carolina

Limited tests in 1965 indicate that the angular leafspot resistance discovered in S.C. breeding cucumbers in 1964 was derived largely, if not entirely, from P.I. 197087. This one introduction has become the source of resistance to anthracnose and angular leafspot plus genes for a greater degree of resistance to downy and powdery mildews. Unfortunately it also carried genes for susceptibility to low temperature, gummy stem blight and carpel separation.

8. Cucumber Breeding Notes

John L. Bowers and J.E. Wyatt

Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas

Expression of the gynoecious character in two-way crosses - The 1965 field notes on 14 different two-way cross hybrids, involving a common gynoecious parent showed approximately 50 per cent of the plants were gynoecious in sex expression and the other 50 per cent were classified as monoecious types. These two-way crosses were obtained by selecting F1 plants which expressed a strong gynoecious character and crossing these with an unrelated pollinator.

Polyploidy - Twenty-nine selfed and sibbed fruits were harvested from 41 plants out of one of the more fertile selections in the S2 generation of a tetraploid grown in the greenhouse. The average number of good seed per fruit was 32.7 and the range was from 9 to 81 good seed per fruit. Several tetraploid-diploid crosses and the average number of good seed per fruit was only 3.2. There was an average of 83 normal size seed without embryos per fruit. One fruit from the tetraploid-diploid cross contained 31 good seed. Although the number of good seed from tetraploid selfs and tetraploid-diploid crosses is low, there has been improvement made through selection from more fertile types.

Relationship between carpel separation in green stock and bloaters in brine stock - The No.3 and No. 4, fruit sizes from the variety trial plots at both Fayetteville and Hope, Arkansas were used to study the degree of association between carpel separation in green stock and bloater count in brine stock. The significant coefficient of correlation (r) of +.42 indicates a close association between these two factors but it would not be useful as a predictive value.

Male sterility - A generic study was undertaken in 1964 to determine the inheritance of the male sterile character in cucumbers and investigate the possibility of using this character to produce F1 hybrids. Male sterile plants from several lines were crossed with Pixie, SC 10, and SC 16D, which are not known to exhibit male sterility, and the F2's grown in field in the summer of 1965. A backcross population (F1 x ms) was also grown for another genetic test.

Data indicates that male sterility is determined by a single recessive gene. The F3 population segregated in the expected 3:1 ratio while the backcross population (Ms ms x ms ms) segregated in the expected 1:1 ratio.

One difficulty which has been encountered is the lack of seed production in male sterile plants. Further work is now being carried out and it is hoped that this problem may be overcome by backcrossing, although the seedlessness may be due to pleiotropism of the single ms gene or linkage of male and female sterility genes.

9. Carpel Separation in Pickling Cucumbers

W.C. Barnes

Clemson University

Carpel separation in pickling cucumbers has been found to be a genetically controlled character, the expression of which is greatly influences by growth factor. A few of the old varieties sow very little under certain conditions and none under others. P.I. 196289, used to obtain high resistance to race 2 anthracnose, produced fruit with a very small, slowly developing seed cavity. This has been a most difficult character to retain in the development of multiple disease resistant pickles, however some of the S.C. 601-609 series crosses appear most promising. Several of them were free of carpel separation in 1965 even though other entries contained a higher than usual percentage of fruits with this defect. The seed cavity of most of these is quite small and the seeds slow to develop. This will permit the production of size 4 pickles that will be as acceptable for pickle production as size 3 fruits of current varieties. The first brine test on these lines will be read shortly and it will be interesting to correlate the internal structure with bloating. Release of these cucumbers is planned for two years hence provided brining and seed increase trials are successful.

10. Gynoecious 3 Pickle Cucumber To Be Released

W.C. Barnes

Clemson University

Clemson University, Asgrow Seed Company and a group of cooperating Southern Pickle Packers plan to release Gy 3 and a pollinator, S.C. 10, to primary seed growers this spring. This will permit the increase of these two items in 1966 and production of hybrid seed of 3 X S.C. 10 and 3 X SMR 18 in 1967. Gy 3 has good resistance to downy and powdery mildews, anthracnose, angular leafspot and cucumber mosaic virus. S.C. 10 has high resistance to downy and powdery mildew and anthracnose and fairly good resistance to angular leafspot. The 3 x 10 hybrid will be highly resistant to downy and powdery mildew and anthracnose and frilly good to angular leafspot and cucumber mosaic virus. The 3 x SMR 18 cross will be highly resistant to scab, more resistant than the pollen parent to cucumber mosaic virus and moderately resistant to downy mildew, anthracnose and angular leafspot. Small quantities may be sampled to cucumber breeders.

11. Behavior of Gene B in Cucurbita

Oved Shifriss

Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey

I. Cucurbita pepo - Gene B was originally studied in relation to the bicolor fruit pattern of the ornamental gourds. This gene is unstable in commercial stocks but stable forms of B can be obtained. It was subsequently observed that gene B is associated with precocious fruit pigmentation, i.e.,. in the presence of B, yellow fruits. And forms of B which act later, but still at pre-anthesis stages, are associated with bicolor fruits. Although the presence of B is essential for the manifestation of the bicolor pattern this characteristic is affected by fruit polarity, fruit shape, temperature, light, and virus infection.

Further observations: (1) Mature leaves of standard bb inbreds exhibit distinct yellow spots at a frequency of about 0.1 per leaf when these inbreds are grown early in spring in New Jersey; 92) In some BB inbreds, grown under the same conditions, the frequency of spots per leaf is significantly higher, about 4.0, but in other BB inbreds, this frequency is about 0.1; (3) BB plants of some genetic backgrounds are transformed completely from green to yellow when these plants are grown early in spring in New Jersey but BB inbreds of other genetic backgrounds as well as all tested bb inbreds are resistant to transformation under the same conditions. Controlled experiments suggest that low temperatures, 60?F or lower, are conducive to spotting and transformations (Amer. Hort. Mag. 44; 184-201. 1965; see also errata in the forthcoming 1966 issue of A.H.M.)

II. Cucurbita maxima - Several P.I. introductions of Cucurbita maxima from India and Africa bear uniformly precocious-yellow fruits. They were first observed in the garden of the Plant Introduction Station at Geneva, New York. The data obtained from the cross between "Buttercup', representing standard fruit pigmentation, and 'P.I. 165558', representing precocious pigmentation being dominant. This dominant gene is designated by symbol Bma mayor may not be homologous to B but it appears as a case of "parallel variation".

'Buttercup', bmabma, behaves as bb inbreds of Cucurbita pepo in exhibiting a low incidence of leaf spots (0.1spots per leaf) under favorable conditions and in being resistant to transformation. Under favorable conditions of low temperature, 'P.I.16558', BmaBma, exhibits considerably higher incidence of leaf spots (over 50 spots per leaf, and stronger tendency for transformation than nay plant transformation is not yet known but this is little doubt that, in a favorable environment, these manifestations are brought about through interaction between Bma and one or more other genes.

III. Questions - Is precocious fruit pigmentation due to a mutation of b (or bma) to B(or Bma)? Are plant transformation and precocious fruit pigmentation due to the same physiological mechanism? Is spotting an aspect of transformation? Do BmaBma cultivars exhibit leaf spotting and plant transformation in tropical India and Africa? What was the selective advantage of Bma in India and Africa?

IV. Applied - Gene B is useful in breeding bicolor ornamental gourds. In addition, gene B appears to be associated with early fruiting and strong female tendency in some genetic backgrounds but this impression should be checked critically. BB fruits are slenderer and often shorter than genetically comparable bb fruits. The flesh of BB fruits is intensely orange in the presence of genes for a relatively high rate of pigment accumulation. However, the value of B and Bma for breeding edible cultivars should be weighed by results of nutritional studies of genetically comparable BB (or BmaBma) and bb (or bmabma) fruits.

It might be useful to test the relative disease and insect tolerance of 'P.I. 16558' in comparison with our own maxima cultivars.

12. Evaluation of Some Muskmelon Varieties and Determining the suitable Spacing for Their Production

Zidan E. Aldel-Al

Alexandria University, Alexandria, U.A.R.

In the United Arab Republic there is an urgent need to look for new exportable vegetable crops. Muskmelon is one of these new promising crops. In 1963, a variety trial carried out at Alexandria University Farm mainly for seed 34 varieties. The results indicated that the vines of Pennsweet, Honey Dew and Rouw's remained green throughout the entire growing season. These varieties were found to tolerate the powdery mildew infections. On March 1964 a total of 8 varieties were considered for further variety trials. The selection of these varieties was based on their relatively high sweetness and tolerance to powdery mildew. the experiment was designed as a split plot design. The varieties were considered as main plots. There were three spacings among plants, i.e. 20,40, and 60 cm, in the sub-plots. Data on early and total yields, fruit size, sweetness, and powdery mildew infections were recorded. The results indicated that Honey Dew, Arizona Sunrise, Rouw's Pennsweet and Honey Rock gave greater yield than any other varieties. The 20 x 120 cm spacings gave the highest yield. Close spacings tended to give relatively smaller fruit size than wide spacings. High yielding varieties were also found to be sweeter than low yielding varieties except for Honey Rock.

13. Studies On The Possibilities of Using Gamma Radiation to Induce Mutation in Okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.)

Zidan E. Aldel-Al

Alexandria University, Alexandria, U.A.R.

Seeds of the variety Large Green of okra were used in this study. This variety has some genetic characters, such as tall stem, shallow lobed leaves, shaped in the rest of the pod. Seeds were exposed to 0, 5000, 7500, 10000, and 12500 r of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at Inshas Atomic Energy establishment. The seeds of the different treatment were seeded in March 1964 to produce the first radiated generation (R1 ). Several mutants were isolated in the R1 in 1964 and 1965 for progeny test. The progeny test indicated that all the mutants bred true.

It was possible to use gamma radiation to obtain mutants that differed in one or more of the following characters:

  1. Deep lobed leaves
  2. Purple or red petioles
  3. Red stem
  4. Ridged pods
  5. Spiny pods
  6. Short stem
  7. Early and late flowering

The significance of this study would help in providing materials to understand the inheritance of some characters in okra and in studying the effect of a single gene on some economical characters.

Some of the mutants will be further tested for the possibility of commercial release.

14. A Possible Clue to Variable Seed Setting in Onions

H.M. Munger and P.R. Dawson

Plant Breeding Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Male sterile onions in isolated crossing blocks have frequently set seed poorly, and occasionally fertile onions have done the same. We have usually blamed this on unfavorable weather or diseases, but observations in 1965 indicated that other factors must be involved, at least in some plantings.

In one crossing block at Freeville, N.Y., Iowa 2997 showed nearly a twenty-fold variation in seed set on the pollen rows within a block about 25 x 100 feet in size. The bulbs were a single lot grown at Greeley, Colorado, and all planted the same day on an excellent and very uniform soil. The first row of 67 bulbs, two feet from a roadside strip of grass and weeds, produced about 0.7 grams of seed per plant. The center row of the pollinator, separated from the first by three rows of male steriles, produced about 0.1 grams per plant on 70 plants. The third pollination row, separated from the second by three rows of male steriles, produced 0.04grams per plant on 57 plants. Six plants at the end of this row were harvested separately because they appeared to have more seed and they yielded 1.0 gram per plant. At the end of the six plants with more seed was a cabbage plant which flowered at about the same time. A conspicuously better seed set was observed on the end plants of 3 adjacent male-sterile rows which also had cabbage plants at the row ends.

Beyond the last pollinator row was one more male-sterile row which had poor seed set except on the last 20 feet which had a row of celery producing seed next to it.

The superior seed set adjacent to the roadside, the cabbage plants, and the celery plants suggests that insect activity on the onions may have been influenced by nearby plants. Observations on other isolated blocks substantiates this. we had unusually good seed set on N.Y. 15-41 pollinator rows in a location which has usually been unfavorable but which had a block of carrots flowering adjacent to the onions in 1965. We had a near failure on pollen rows of B2215 which made excellent growth in a location where we have usually had good seed yields, but where in 1965, contrary to the usual situation, we had no other biennial vegetables set out for seed production along with the onions.

We are wondering if it would improve onion seed yields to spot at intervals through the fields some other plants with flowers more attractive to insects. We plan to try carrots for this purpose in 1966.

15. Water Absorption Capacity of Pea Seeds Used to Identify Wrinkled Genotypes

K.K. Marshall

Experimental Farm, Brandon, Manitoba

Peas with wrinkled seeds of the "classical" rr type differ from round seeded types in several characteristics which render them more palatable to man, when used in immature stage. A type of pea with wrinkled seed reported by Kooistra and by Marshall differed genetically from the classical type. If it is assumed that factors for edibility in peas are associated with both the "classical" and "new" types of wrinkled seed, it is possible that a new, sweeter, more tender type of pea could be derived from double genetic combination. Identification of a genotype by morphologic means would be impossible because of similarity of seed shape in the two single and in the double gene combination.

Differences in the water absorption capacity of mature pea seeds were found between lines or varieties within each of four genetically different seed types, round, wrinkled, new wrinkled and "double" wrinkled, but differences between three of these classes were large and consistent.

The absorption indices obtained by soaked weight / dry weight were:

Seed type

Absorption index

Round and dimpled

1.95 - 2.07

Classical wrinkled


New wrinkled a

2.17- 2.37

New wrinkled b

2.57- 2.81

Doubled wrinkled a

2.57 - 2.81

Doubled wrinkled b


Both the new wrinkled and double wrinkled classes were bimodal with the larger group having the higher absorption index. The new wrinkled class may be identified by its simple oval starch grains. The other two wrinkled classes absorb different amounts of water before germination.

Differences in water absorption capacity were positively correlated with differences in sugar content of immature peas. They were also negatively correlated with seed weight in lines with the genes for new wrinkled. Immature seeds of the double wrinkled class contained an average of more than1 percent more sugar than the classical wrinkled class.

16. Probable Origin Of New Wrinkled Gene in Peas

H.H. Marshall

Brandon, Manitoba

The new wrinkled gene seems to have originated with variety Alsweet (Alaska Sweet, Cansweet, early Green Pod, Pacemaker, Rocket or Minnesota Early Sweet). Alaska is said to be one of its parents but the other parent could not be stated.

Alaska and Alsweet are remarkably alike in all characters except seed shape. In a cross between these varieties, simple 3:1 segregation in seed shape was the only segregation found. This may be contrasted with complicated ratios for segregation in seed type alone in other crosses with Minnesota Early Sweet. This suggests that Alsweet was probably a sport to a new wrinkled type from the variety Alaska.

17. "Redgold" (NH#7) Squash

E.M. Meader and Lih Hung

Plant Science Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire

In 1956, Tetsukabuto, a commercial F1 hybrid of Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata. from Takii & Co., Ltd., Seed Growers, Hyota, Japan, yielded many 5-pound oblate dark green squashes at Durham, N.H. that, when cooked, were rated very good. Japanese seedsmen commonly furnish some seeds of C. moschata and planting with such interspecific F1 hybrids. Seeds of C. moschata from Japan and several standard American varieties of the two species mentioned were grown near Tetsukabuto. What few viable seeds that could be found in open-pollinated Tetsukabuto squashes having an orange skin and flesh free of any green color were cook-tested. Only those cooked squashes that had dry, sweet flesh of good flavor and texture were saved for seeds. Little attention was paid to size and shape of the fruits till later generations.

Repeated selfing is an accepted procedure for attaining true-breeding lines of squash. In this interspecific breeding material, few successful self-pollinations could be realized until F4 and F5. Many plants were male sterile. Some plants failed to have even a single male blossom open on the same morning as a female blossom, thereby precluding self-pollination. Thus, only open-pollinated seeds could be saved from early generations of this interspecific cross. Each year progenies from selected open-pollinated squashes were planted near varieties and breeding lines of Cucurbita maxima having squashes with orange skin. Nor was isolation from C. moschata varieties and breeding lines attempted.

At anthesis of their first female flowers, those plants having green ovaries rather than a golden color were considered rogues and were removed promptly. From among the open-pollinated polymorphic fruits of F4, a 17-pound orange-colored squash having excellent quality cooked flesh was selected. The variety Geneva #3 (later named redskin) was among others grown nearby the F4. In F5, grown from seeds of the 17-pound selected squash, six orange-skin self-pollinated squashes that met all specifications for a high quality cooked product were selected. When self-pollination and selection for 3 more generations had been completed, a true-breeding line was established in 1965 and was designated as NH#7 for further testing.

Description of Nh # 7 squash: The smooth oval fruits 14 to 16 inches in length and 8 inches in diameter weigh 12 to 14 pounds. The thin waxy skin has a bright red color. The skin is so thin that it hardly needs to be removed from the dry, sweet, fine-grained flesh before cooking. Both skin and flesh are entirely free of green color as well as the stem of the squash which is a golden color. Flesh is one and one-half inches thick. The seed cavity is relatively small. The plump buff seeds have an enamel seed coat. The squashes mature early on strong-growing, long-trailing vines. Besides being attractive for roadside markets because of its bright red color, "Redgold" squash may surpass other varieties in usefulness for packaging in polyethylene bags.

No study of inheritance of golden stem color has been attempted yet. NH # 7 appears homozygous for this trait and a few seeds can be made available to anyone wanting to study this character.

18. Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Powdery Mildew in Cucurbita pepo

H.M. Munger

Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

L.W. Schaible and M.W. Martin in their Cornell Ph.D. theses reported resistance to CMV in several Plant Introductions of Cucurbita pepo. Progenies from crosses made by Martin have been grown on a small scale since he completed his work in 1959. Two sisters F4 progenies from row 61-303 have shown no clear symptoms of mosaic in artificially inoculated field tests where susceptible varieties showed extreme mottling and stunting. These progenies came from P.O. 176959 x Yankee Hybrid.

In 1965, the same two progenies remained essentially free of powdery mildew in the field when squash and cucumbers adjacent to them became white with mildew. Earlier notes indicate that similar observations had been made in at least two previous years. Unfortunately, a greenhouse test in january 1966 reveals that the powdery mildew resistance of these lines is much less striking under winter greenhouse conditions, but a few plants of P.I. 176959 seem somewhat more resistant than the progenies derived from crosses with it.

Our seed supply of both the PI and the 61-303 progenies is very limited, but we will be glad to share what we can spare for other breeders who are especially interested in exploring the field resistance these seem to carry.

19. Ripe Rot of Peppers

W.H. Greenleaf

Horticulture Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830

Ripe rot is an important disease of ripening peppers in our area. Several P.I. numbers which I observed in field in past years and again during 1965 season were so highly resistant to the ripe rot disease that the fruits ripened and gradually dried on the plants without rotting even during prolonged warm rainy periods. The most promising of these accessions are of the species Capsicum sinense, which crosses readily with C. annuum. I will supply seeds to interested breeders on request.

20. Screening for High Temperature Tomato Fruit Set Using Excised Inflorescences

H.T. Erickson, M.L. Tomes and R.J. Barman

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana

The "milk bottle technique" has been used by potato breeders for several years as a means of increasing the success of difficult matings. Six to twelve inch stem cuttings are made having an inflorescence with the first flower at or approaching anthesis. These are placed in bottles of water or water with nutrients, and a bactericide. Fertilization and seed development, requiring 3 to 4 weeks to mature, proceed normally on these excised cuttings.

Interest in breeding for high temperature tomato fruit setting ability suggested a modification of this technique as a method for screening large numbers of breeding lines including individual plants in segregating progenies. Natural field conditions are generally too variable from season to season to be efficient.

A controlled climate chamber was set at a 16 hour day, with daytime temperatures of 90? and night temperatures of 80?. Cuttings about six inches long, having at least one developed leaf, and the first flower nearly at anthesis, were placed in the chamber in 125 ml flasks of tap water, three cuttings per flask, with no nutrients added. Each day the flowers were tapped to assure pollination.

A number of lines were tested before screening was initiated to verify the existence of differential varietal response under the experimental conditions.

On July 7, 1965, cuttings made from plants growing in the field were placed in the controlled climate chamber. An observation block of 153 entries and a breeding block of 93 advanced lines were sampled by taking single cuttings from three plants of each line.

Fruit setting data were recorded July 20. Ovaries were well developed on those flowers that had set. In most cases the flowers that had not set abscised in a few days. For a few flowers that did not abscise there was very little apparent ovary development. These were classified as non-setting. In certain questionable cases additional time might have resolved any uncertainty.

In nearly every instance only one fruit developed per inflorescence. Those that set multiple fruit were primarily very small-fruited varieties.

A summary of the results is given below. The "observation" entries include many commercial varieties, advanced breeding lines such as those in the Southern Tomato Exchange Program (STEP) trial, and a number of PI's. Percentage of the total for each of the two groups is given in parenthesis.

Number of cuttings per line setting fruit
Observation lines
92 (60)
31 (20)
17 (11)
13 (9)
Purdue breeding lines
37 (40)
35 (38)
13 (14)
8 (8)

Over half of the observation lines failed to set any fruit. Twenty percent had one cutting that set and 11% had two that set. Of the 13 lines (nine percent) that set in all three inflorescences 10 are from extreme northern U.S., Canada and Europe. Three of these were strains of Fireball. Only one of 42 STEP entries was in this category. It was from Texas. (Of the STEP entries 33 (79%) had no set). One of the 13 in the highest ranking category was an F1 hybrid.

The Purdue advanced breeding lines were somewhat higher in intermediate categories but about equal to the observation group in percentage of highest setting entries.

Lines originating in cold, northern areas rated higher in their ability to set at high temperatures than those from more southern regions. But for some time it has been known that ability to set in low temperatures is associated with high temperature set.

This excised inflorescence technique is adapted to large scale screening when controlled climate facilities are available. It is much more economical of time and space than the growing of intact plants under controlled conditions. Fruits have been raised to maturity on these cuttings (which almost always have roots) in soil if selections for setting ability are to be made directly from the excised inflorescence.

21. Release of a Tomato Breeding Line, CVF4, with Combined Resistance to Curly Top, Verticillium Wilt, and Fusarium Wilt

Mark W. Martin

U.S.D.A., Logan, Utah

The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Utah Agricultural Experiment station are jointly releasing the curly top resistant tomato breeding line, CVF4. CVF4 is also highly resistant to Verticillium and Fusarium wilts.

The curly-top resistance, although not complete, is of a level economically important to those areas where the disease is prevalent. Table 1 illustrates the type of test results obtained both in the greenhouse and field.

Table 1. Response of line CVF4 to curly-top virus in greenhouse seedling tests at Logan, Utah, and field tests at Prosser, Washington, and St. George, Utah.

Greenhouse Tests*
Field Tests
Number 1
Number 2
St. George
Susc. Check

* Greenhouse tests (Number 1 and Number 2) are each the combined results of two tests with similar levels of exposure to curly-top virus.

** Number of healthy plants divided by total number of plants.

The curly-top resistance of CVF4 is derived from the wild species Lycopersicon peruvianum var. dentatum, L. hirsutum and L. pimpinellifolium. Three small-fruited breeding lines, with low levels of curly-top resistance derived from these wild sources, were intercrossed to produce a line with a higher level of resistance. This three-way cross line was backcrossed twice to a susceptible, Verticillium-Fusarium wilt resistant breeding line of commercial type. The breeding line CVF4 is the F6 generation of a selection made from this second backcross.

The three-way cross line had extremely poor plant and fruit characteristics. The fruit weighed only about one-half ounce. However, it has been possible to transfer most of the resistance to curly top from this three-way cross line through three successive backcrosses and combine it with good plant and fruit characteristics and large fruit size. No apparent linkages between genes for resistance and genes for unfavorable horticultural characteristics have been observed. In each of the three backcrosses, results indicate that resistance to curly top is controlled by dominant genes. Studies are in progress to obtain more detailed data on the mode of inheritance of resistance.

The Verticillium wilt and Fusarium wilt resistance of CVF4 were derived from the VF resistant backcross parent which in turn derived Verticillium wilt resistance from VR Moscow and Fusarium wilt resistance from Ohio Wilt-Resistant Globe.

CVF4 does not have fruit adapted to either commercial hand picking or machine picking. However, promising CVF resistant lines of commercial type result from crossing this line with commercial varieties. In trials at Farmington and St. George, Utah, and Prosser, Washington, CVF4 has had a somewhat smaller plant with less foliage but much better fruit set and earlier season of maturity than the commercial variety VR Moscow. Fruit of CVF4 average about three ounces in size, and in type, firmness and internal color resembles VR Moscow. Good crack resistance, small core and good peeling ability have been noted in CVF4 but it is low in soluble solids.

Limited amounts of seed are available without charge to tomato breeders who request it from Mark W. Martin, Department of Botany, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.

22. The Effect of Soil Moisture Levels on Style Elongation in Some Tomato Varieties

Dermot P. Coyne

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

Abnormal elongation of styles during periods of dry hot weather results in severe reduction of fruit set in tomatoes (Smith, O. 1935. Cornel Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 184). The styles were also observed to elongate abnormally under conditions of low soil moisture (Smith, O. 1932. J. of Agr. Res. 41: 183-190). However, the author has found no information in the literature on the effect of levels of soil moisture on style elongation of different varieties in relation to fruit set.

In 1965, the effect of high and low soil moisture on style elongation was studied in 5 tomato varieties grown in the field in western Nebraska. The two varieties Porter and Narcarlang are well known for their ability to set fruit under high temperature, while No. 146, VF 145-B and an old variety, Polar Circle, are not recognized as being heat tolerant. It was planned also to study the relation of style elongation and fruit set under high temperature of the different varieties. However, the season was relatively cool and all varieties showed a good fruit set, so the latter part of the investigation was abandoned. A split plot design consisting of 2 replicates was used, with irrigation treatments as main plots and varieties as subplots. In the high and low irrigation treatments, the available soil moisture was allowed to decline to 70 and 30 percent, respectively, and then irrigated to field capacity. The approximate available soil moisture in the high and low soil moisture plots was 70% and 45%, respectively, when the data were recorded. Style length was measured in relation to the tip of the anther cone. If the style protruded beyond the anther cone or remained within the anther cone, the style was measured from the stigma to the tip of the anther cone in + and - mms, respectively. When the stigma was level with the tip of the anther cone, a zero value was recorded. The style length of 20 newly opened flowers was recorded in each plot. Green fruit of varying size had developed on the first truss of all varieties at the time of recording the data.

A differential varietal response of style elongation under the two soil moisture levels was observed (Table 1). The styles of the varieties Narcarlang and Polar Circle showed a significant increase in length under soil moisture stress, and the styles of the former variety protruded beyond the anther cone. It would have been interesting to have observed the effect of high night temperature and hot dry windy days on the fruit set of Narcarlang under soil moisture stress, since this variety is well known for ability to set fruits under high temperatures. (Schaible, L.W., Proc. Plant Sc. Symp. Campbell Soup Co. 1962.). Previous research showed that abnormal style elongation resulted in reduction of fruit set. There was no significant difference between the style lengths of the other three varieties when grown under the two moisture levels.

Table 1. Style mean length in mms above (+) or below (-) tip of anther cone of 5 tomato varieties under high and low irrigation treatment in the field.

Irrigation treatment
Variety and source
Polar Circle (Ft. Collins Ser. No. 27153)
VF 145-B (Univ. of California)
Narcarlang PI 273,445
Porter (Porter Seed Co.)
No. 146 (Asgrow)
Irrigations within variety means HSD .05 =
Varieties within irrigation means HSD .05 =

23. Studies on the Production of First Generation Tomato Hybrid in the United Arab Republic

Z.E. Abdel-Al, S. Hamdy, and Y.A. El-Kabany

Alexandria University, Alexandria, U.A.R.

Several tomato varieties such as Stoner, Victory, Money Maker, Fireball, Shyenne, and Geneva 11 were crossed to obtain 15 possible combinations of first generation hybrids. The parent varieties and their 15 crosses were tested in a randomized block design variety trial at Alexandria University Farm during the summer of 1964. The early yield, total yield and fruit size were determined as shown in Table 1.

Results indicated that most hybrids gave greater early yield than the early variety Fireball. The first generation hybrid of (Fireball x Money Maker) gave 40% increase in early yield over Fireball. The cross (Victory x Shyenne) gave 50% increase in early yield over Shyenne. The first generation hybrid (Victory x Fireball) gave 52% increase in early yield over Fireball. An increase of 400% in early yield was obtained from the first generation (Geneva 11 x Money Maker) over the average early yield of its parents.

Regarding total yield, the results showed that the first generation hybrid (Victory x Shyenne) gave 55.9 tons per feddan*, whereas, the average yield of its parents was 19.26 tons per feddan. Fruit size of most hybrids was of medium size. However, few hybrids tended to give either small or large sized fruits. The study recommended the commercial production of the first generation (Geneva 11 x Money Maker) and (Victory x Shyenne) since the increase in early and total yield was approximately 5 and 2 1/2 times that of their parents, respectively.

*Feddan = 1.038 Acre (10,000 tomato plants in a feddan).

Table 1. Early yield, total yield and fruit size of parent varieties and their F1 hybrids.

Parent and Hybrids
Early yield in tons per feddan
Total yield in tons per feddan
Fruit size in grams
Geneva 11
Money Maker
Victory x Stoner
Victory x Fireball
Victory x Geneva 11
Victory x Shyenne
Victory x Money Maker
Stoner x Fireball
Stoner x Geneva 11
Stoner x Shyenne
Stoner x Money Maker
Fireball x Shyenne
Fireball x Money Maker
Geneva 11 x Shyenne
Geneva 11 x Money Maker
Shyenne x Money Maker
L.S.D. 5%

24. Tomato Stock Available

Paul G. Smith

University of California, Davis, California

Jointless (j2j2) pedicel with normal inflorescence. The original stocks of jointless (j2j2) are associated with a multiple inflorescence, which is highly undesirable. In 1965, from an F2 population involving Heinz 1748 obtained from C.A. John, a single plant was found with the jointless pedicel and normal inflorescence. This plant (64N108), when selfed, was true breeding for this condition, and in F2 populations from crosses of normal inflorescence lines with 64N108, the jointless pedicel was recovered in about 25 per cent of the population. All the plants had the normal inflorescence.

The fruit can be picked from plants with the jointless character as readily as from those with the normal jointed pedicel. The value of this gene appears to be particularly for use with mechanically harvested varieties in eliminating fruit puncture and the need for hand removal of adherent stems.

Seed may be obtained from Paul G. Smith at the above address.

25. Other Stocks Available

G.W. Bohn

U.S. Horticultural Field Station, La Jolla, California

We have the following stocks that may be of interest to other researchers:

26. Stocks Desired

27. Uncatalogued Vegetable Varieties Available for Trial in 1966

This list is aimed at facilitating the exchange of information about potential new varieties, or new varieties which have not yet appeared in catalogues. Persons conducting vegetable variety trials who wish seed of items on this list should request samples from the sources indicated.

It is the responsibility of the person sending out seed to specify that it is for trial only, or any other restriction he may want to place on its use.

Crops are listed alphabetically, with lima beans and sweet corn listed under "L" and "S". For each entry the following information is given: designation, source of trial samples, outstanding characteristics, variety suggested for comparison (not given separately if mentioned in description), status of variety (preliminary trial, advanced trial, to be released, or released), and contributor of information if different from source of trial samples. Where several samples are listed consecutively from one source, the address is given only for the first.

28. Addendum: Varieties available from E. Wilbur Scott, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Rochester, N.Y. 14624