Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/1998
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Culture practices, nutrient requirements, feeds and feeding of peinaeid shrimp were reviewed. Traditionally, wild caught postlarvae constitute the primary source of seed stock in many countries. Currently, with the successful development of hatchery technology, shrimp farmers rely on hatchery-reared postlarvae for seed stock. The culture methods have shifted dfrom extensive to semi-intensive and intensive systems where shrimp depend on artificial feeds for growth and health. The dietary protein requirements of shrimp range from 30% to 60% dependent on several factors. Shrimp require the same 10 essential amino acids as do finfishes but only five of them have been quantitatively determined. The optimum digestible energy to protein ratio ranges from 8.3-9.5 kcal/g of protein. The optimum dietary lipid level varies from 6%-10%. Linoleic and linolenic series of fatty acids, cholesterol and phospholipids are dietary essentials for shrimp with hlinolenic acid being nutritionally superior to linoleic, while highly unsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) being more effective than linolenic acid. Disaccharides and polysaccharides are better utilized by shrimp than monosaccharides. Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1,B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, biotin, inositol, folic acid and choline are dietary essentials for shrimp. Dietary minerals essential for shrimp are Ca, P, K, Mg, Cu, Se and Zn. Feeds for shrimp must be nutritionally adequate, have good water stability and must contain chemosensory substances to enhance feed consumption. Good quality feed can give poor results unless proper feeding practices (feed allowance, feeding methods, frequency and schedule) are applied.