|WIGHTMAN, J - PEST MGMT INTERNATL, VA
|HARDIE, D - AGRIC WESTERN AUSTRALIA
|BAILEY, P - S. AUSTRALIA RES. & DEV.
|BAKER, G - S. AUSTRALIA RES. & DEV.
|MCDONALD, G - AGRI. VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA
Submitted to: Cool Season Food Legumes Linking Research and Market Opportunities for the
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/6/1998
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The U.S. Government has a goal of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) implementation on 75% of the crop acreage by the year 2000. What, then, is the status of IPM on major grain legume crops in the dryland production zones of the U.S. Pacific Northwest? IPM is a biologically-based system in which chemical control is used only at times and places where natural pest control is inadequate. This chapter reviews research achievements in IPM supportive activities (insect pest forecasting and sampling, for example) and management methods (plant resistance, biological control, chemical control, for example) for the major insect and mite pests of dry pea, lentil, and chickpea and other grain legumes in the world, including U.S. production areas in Washington and Idaho. While much research has been done by entomologists in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, and in U.S. and foreign universities and research institutes, the number of operational IPM programs is scarce. It is the consensus of the authors of this chapter that IPM is not currently practiced by US grain legume producers, but some programs are in place and being used in India and Australia. This review provides the first inventory of grain legume IPM research worldwide and, in so doing, suggests the best research areas for future emphasis to develop operational IPM programs.
Technical Abstract: Grain legumes such as chickpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, and lupins are second only to cereals in importance as food for humans and livestock worldwide. Farmers rely upon insecticides to control the many pest insects and mites that attack these crops and reduce the yield and affect seed quality. However, because of modern society's fear of pesticide residues in nfood, however minute, and environmental concerns about pesticide use, it is becoming much more difficult for grain legume farmers to use pesticides. This review emphasizes the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) activities and programs for management of the major insect and mite pests of grain legumes. With an integrated control approach (now known as IPM) farmers would only need pesticides if natural pest control was inadequate. Although there have been many research achievements in insect forecasting and modeling, field sampling, the development of economic thresholds, and the development of management methods beyond insecticides (host-plant resistance, biological control, genetically engineered plants, cultural control), the number of IPm programs in grain legumes are scarce. While operational IPM programs are in place in India and Australia, there are none in the grain legume producing area of eastern Washington and northern Idaho in the United States. More judicious use of insecticides through insect monitoring and use of economic thresholds is needed in the United States and elsewhere to preserve the use of available insecticides in grain legumes.