Submitted to: Avian Pathology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/2/1998
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary: Salmonella species represent a health concern to both humans and domestic food animals. The purpose of this study was to use a chicken white blood cell line to produce factors which can protect avian species from infections with Salmonella, thereby providing a tool that can be used in the poultry industry to protect against Salmonella infections in both animals and people. These experiments proved that the white blood cell factors are successful at preventing Salmonella infections in turkey poults and that these factors can be administered to the birds by practices currently used in the poultry industry to administer vaccines to day-of-hatch birds.
Technical Abstract: Past experiments have shown that the administration by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Salmonella enteritidis (SE)-immune lymphokines (ILK) derived from chicken splenic T cells protect both chicks and turkey poults from SE organ invasion. This protection was mediated by the avian heterophil. Present experiments evaluated the ability of SE-immune lymphokines derived from a virally transformed chicken T cell line (VILK) in protecting day-old turkeys against SE organ invasion, inducing peripheral blood heterophilia, and funtionally activating heterophils when delivered subcutaneously (s.c.), orally (p.o.), or intranasally (i.n.) routes when compared to i.p. injection. All routes of administration of VILK showed dramatic reductions in SE organ invasion and significant elevations in the number of heterophils in the peripheral blood. The rise in peripheral blood heterophils was accompanied by a significant increase in the functional activity of the heterophils. Chemotactic movement of heterophils from all VILK groups was 2-3 times that observed in the control heterophils using chicken serum and recombinant human interleukin- 8 as the chemoattractants. The number of heterophils phagocytizing SE and the number of bacteria per heterophil were significantly higher in all VILK aministered groups. Adherence to bovine serum albumin revealed significant increases in adherence of heterophils from all VILK administered groups when compared to control heterophils from poults. The results of these experiments clearly show that VILK delivered s.c., p.o., and i.n. is as effective in protecting day-old poults from SE invasion as an i.p. injection and that this protection is also mediated by the activation of an increased number of heterophils in the circulation.