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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Griffin, Georgia » Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #405569

Research Project: An Integrated Approach for Plant Genetic Resources Conservation, Characterization, Evaluation, Documentation, and Distribution

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Vulnerability of U.S. new and industrial crop genetic resources

item Morris, John - Brad
item DIERIG, DAVID - Bridgestone Americas, Inc
item Heinitz, Claire
item Hellier (ctr), Barbara
item BRADLEY, VICKI - Retired ARS Employee
item MAREK, LAURA - Iowa State University

Submitted to: Industrial Crops and Products
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/19/2023
Publication Date: 10/12/2023
Citation: Morris, J.B., Dierig, D., Heinitz, C.C., Hellier, B.C., Bradley, V., Marek, L. 2023. Vulnerability of U.S. new and industrial crop genetic resources. Industrial Crops and Products. 206 (2023) 117364.

Interpretive Summary: Castor bean, gumweed, guar, guayule, kenaf, roselle, safflower, sesame, sunn hemp, rubber dandelion, and vernonia are used as industrial crops. These crops have susceptibility to several threats and their wild species may contain traits for resistance to these threats. Therefore, effort is needed to acquire these wild species before they become extinct. These industrial crops represent more than 3,000 individual samples. Since, few plant scientist's are working on many of these crops and the fact that climate change will cause more pest problems, more improved varieties are needed.

Technical Abstract: New and industrial crops include castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), gumweed (Grindelia spp.), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub, guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), rubber dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz L.E. Rodin) and Vernonia [Centrapalus pauciflorus (Willd.) H. Rob.]. Relatively few cultivars for these species are used for production which increases their susceptibility to several pests and abiotic threats. Wild relatives for many of these species contain genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic problems. Acquiring wild relatives for these species worldwide is limited which may result in dramatic species losses due to expansion of human population growth and climate change. The USDA, ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) new and industrial crop collections include 1,044 castor bean; 55 gumweed; 1,300 guar; 121 guayule; 286 kenaf; 139 roselle; 2,400 safflower; 1,300 sesame; 22 sunn hemp; 37 rubber dandelion; and 61 Centrapalus pauciflorus accessions. Most of these new and industrial crops have some vulnerability in the U.S. because there are a few breeders developing or have developed new cultivars. However, there have not been any breeding activities for gumweed, sunn hemp, and Centrapalus pauciflorus. New and current pests and climate change are some of the main threats to vulnerability and when incorporated with industry needs and consumer interests, additional cultivars will be required.