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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Canal Point, Florida » Sugarcane Field Station » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #405470

Research Project: Development of High-Yielding, Stress Tolerant Sugarcane Cultivars Using Agronomic, Genetic, and Molecular Approaches

Location: Sugarcane Field Station

Title: Genetic variability and clustering pattern of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) germplasm with respect to sucrose and related traits

item Momotaz, Aliya
item Coto Arbelo, Orlando
item Gordon, Vanessa
item Wesley, Bronski
item Sood, Sushma
item ZHAO, DULI - Former ARS Employee

Submitted to: International Journal of Plant Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/20/2024
Publication Date: 3/26/2024
Citation: Momotaz, A., Coto Arbelo, O., Gordon, V.S., Wesley, B.L., Sood, S.G., Zhao, D. 2024. Genetic variability and clustering pattern of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) germplasms with respect to sucrose and related traits. International Journal of Plant Biology. 15:203-216.

Interpretive Summary: Sugarcane breeders need new germplasm to increase sugar yields and provide resistance to pests and environmental stresses as sugarcane has a low level of genetic diversity resulting from a narrow genetic base. Sugarcane germplasm from around the world was collected for the sugarcane breeding program at USDA ARS Canal Point, Florida. Before utilizing the collected clones as parents, fifty-five foreign sugarcane clones along with four check cultivars were evaluated in a field trial for on the organic soils at the USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station in Canal Point, Florida. Data were collected and analyzed from sucrose related traits on two different crop cycles) and analyzed. Genotypes were significantly different for all sucrose related traits. The germplasms could clearly be separated into six groups influenced by crop cycle. The sucrose related data were used to estimate genotypic merits of parents. Among 55 genotypes, fourteen of them were considered elite parents. Among the four check cultivars, two fell into the elite group. The results provide a foundation for efficient use of genetic diversity in the CP sugarcane breeding program, to increase sucrose yield and develop new commercial cultivars.

Technical Abstract: Fifty-five sugarcane genotypes from around the world were collected and evaluated for potential use as parental material in the USDA ARS Canal Point (CP) sugarcane breeding program in Florida, USA. The genotypes were planted in a trial with four check cultivars on organic soils with four replications, and data were collected for two years [i.e., plant cane (PC) and first ratoon (FR) crops] to assess sucrose-yield-related traits and the cane-yield-related traits in PC. Using a multivariate analysis, variation was observed in all cane—[i.e., stalk weight, stalk population and cane yield] and sugar-yield-related traits [i.e., Brix, Pol, sucrose content and commercial recoverable sucrose (CRS)]. The mean CRS content was greater in the FR crop than the PC crop. Significant variations were attributed to genotype (G), crop cycles (C) and G × C effects. Variations between crop cycles were highly significant for all sucrose yield components, which could complicate the downstream selection of genotypes for sucrose yield. Based on CRS content, genotypes could be grouped into six distinct clusters. Based on plant cane data, cane yield traits (stalk weight, stalk population and cane yield) were used to estimate the breeding values of parents. Of the 55 genotypes, 8 had significantly greater t-BLUP values for cane yield, along with CP 00-1101. Combined sucrose yield traits, (Brix, Pol and sucrose content) from the two crops were used to estimate the breeding values of parents. Of the 55 genotypes, 10 genotypes had significantly greater t-BLUP values for CRS, along with CP 00-1101, CP 96-1252 and CP 01-2390, and can be considered as elite parents in future breeding efforts. These results provide a foundation for the efficient integration of genetic diversity in developing commercial cultivars, with improved sucrose yields, into the CP sugarcanea breeding program.