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ARS Home » Plains Area » Bushland, Texas » Conservation and Production Research Laboratory » Soil and Water Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #394193

Research Project: Dryland and Irrigated Crop Management Under Limited Water Availability and Drought

Location: Soil and Water Management Research

Title: The Bushland, Texas, winter wheat datasets

item Evett, Steven - Steve
item Marek, Gary
item Copeland, Karen
item Ruthardt, Brice
item Colaizzi, Paul
item Brauer, David
item HOWELL, SR., TERRY - Retired ARS Employee

Submitted to: Ag Data Commons
Publication Type: Database / Dataset
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/31/2022
Publication Date: 8/31/2022
Citation: Evett, S.R., Marek, G.W., Copeland, K.S., Ruthardt, B.B., Colaizzi, P.D., Brauer, D.K., Howell, Sr., T.A. 2022. The Bushland, Texas, winter wheat datasets. Ag Data Commons.

Interpretive Summary: The scarcity of water resources in the U.S. Southern High Plains is of regional, national, and even international concern due to the fact that the region acts as a breadbasket for the nation and world. The majority of agricultural production in this region depends on irrigation, largely dependent on pumping from the Ogallala or High Plains Aquifer, which are yielding less water every year. Winter wheat is an important crop in the region, grown both for grazing by the cattle industry and for grain. Supplemental irrigation is often used to compensate for irregular precipitation and improve forage and grain yields. Scientists at the USDA ARS Conservation & Production Research Laboratory at Bushland, Texas, collected data regarding winter wheat water use over three seasons to determine the amount of water used in the region’s climate, the effectiveness of supplemental irrigation practices, and the accuracy of water use models. However, these data have not been previously publicly available in a readily useable format. Thus, the scientific team has prepared these unique data sets for sharing with other scientists and the general public on the USDA National Agricultural Library online data sharing library. These data sets have already been used to improve crop growth, water use, and yield models used to forecast production nationally and to guide water planning locally and regionally. Public accessibility via the USDA National Agricultural Library will increase their use by other researchers.

Technical Abstract: Winter wheat is an important dual use crop on the Southern High Plains, grown both for grazing and for grain depending on growing season precipitation. Although often grown as a dryland crop, supplemental irrigation is often used to improve forage and grain production. Accurate ET is important for effective irrigation scheduling to improve crop water productivity, irrigation scheme management, long term water resource planning and management, and for use in crop simulation models to improve accuracy of yield estimates. However, all crop ET estimation methods must be tested against ground truth – ET as measured by mass balance in crop fields – and improved so as to estimate ET as accurately as possible. Mass balance measurement of ET depends on solving the soil water balance in which ET is the sum of the change of water stored in the soil profile to well below the root zone, irrigation, precipitation, the sum of any runon and runoff, and any soil water flux into or out of the soil profile. Effective means of measuring the profile change in storage include the neutron probe and large weighing lysimeters. The USDA ARS weighing lysimeter team at Bushland, Texas, measured ET of winter wheat under both full and deficit irrigation, and as a dryland crop in 1989-90, 1991-92, and 1992-93 using both weighing lysimeters and the neutron probe. Along with those measurements, the team measured crop growth and yield, weather, and irrigation applied. These data are presented, along with cropping calendars for each season, as machine readable files available to the public via the USDA ARS National Agriculture Library (NAL) Ag Data Commons internet site. The cropping calendars contain dates of important field operations, including dates, amounts, and kinds of fertilizers and pesticides applied, harvests and irrigations. The weather data include daily sums and averages as well as 15-minute mean data for all days of the year, and include solar irradiance, air temperature and humidity, wind speed, air pressure, and precipitation. The Bushland winter wheat data have already been used by several universities and by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) for crop model testing and improvement.