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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Griffin, Georgia » Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #383166

Research Project: Conservation, Characterization, Evaluation, and Distribution of Grain, Oilseed, Vegetable, Subtropical and Tropical Legume, and Warm Season Grass Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Storage duration increases oxidation products in peanut seeds

item Tonnis, Brandon
item Wang, Ming
item HUANG, EDWARD - University Of Georgia
item BHATTARAI, UTTAM - University Of Georgia
item Tallury, Shyamalrau - Shyam

Submitted to: Plant Genetic Resources
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/25/2021
Publication Date: 10/14/2021
Citation: Tonnis, B.D., Wang, M.L., Huang, E., Bhattarai, U., Tallury, S.P. 2021. Storage duration increases oxidation products in peanut seeds. Plant Genetic Resources. 19:465-467.

Interpretive Summary: Seeds stored in seed banks are essential materials for preserving plant genetic diversity which can be used to improve crop yields, resistance to disease, etc. However, seeds can undergo aging while in storage which can eventually lead to lower germination rates over time. This is often caused by changes in the chemical makeup of the seeds. To test the effects of storage time on the oil of peanut seeds, we measured freshly-harvested seeds and compared them to seeds that had differing lengths of storage. We observed no chemical changes to the fresh seeds, but we did see the appearance of oil oxidation products in stored seeds. Furthermore, the concentration of these compounds increased with increasing age of the seeds. This research shows that the oil component of oilseeds such as peanuts are increasingly affected by storage length which has been shown to negatively affect seed germination.

Technical Abstract: Seeds kept in long-term storage are essential for maintaining genetic resources of crops and other plant materials in seed banks and national germplasm systems. But seeds undergo chemical changes over time as part of the aging process that result in reduced germination rates and seedling normalcy. For example, oilseed crops such as peanuts are particularly vulnerable to oxidation and rancidification due to their high oil content. To test the effect of storage time on seed oil in peanuts, we grew different accessions and harvested fresh seeds to compare the oil composition of new seeds with seeds aged in storage for varying lengths of time. Out of the nine fatty acids detected and measured by gas chromatography, five including oleic, gadoleic, behenic, lignoceric, and cerotic acids differed significantly between new and old seeds. Additionally, old seeds accumulated up to four oxidation products together averaging about one percent of the total oil content. The concentration of these oxidation products was positively correlated with the age of the seeds, increasing linearly up to more than six percent of the total in the oldest seeds. The presence and concentration of oxidation products measured using simple chromatography techniques can be used as an initial indication of quality and viability in older seed inventories stored in germplasm repositories.