|SAMADDAR, SANDIPAN - University Of California
|KARP, DANIEL - University Of California
|SCHMIDT, RODOMIR - University Of California
|DEVARAJAN, JARESH - Washington State University
|McGarvey, Jeffery - Jeff
|PIRES, ALDA - University Of California
|SCOW, KATE - University Of California
Submitted to: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/2/2021
Publication Date: 8/4/2021
Citation: Samaddar, S., Karp, D., Schmidt, R., Devarajan, J., McGarvey, J.A., Pires, A., Scow, K. 2021. Role of soil in the regulation of human and plant pathogens: Soils' contributions to people. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 376. Article 20200179. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0179.
Interpretive Summary: Soil and the microorganisms within play important roles in the health of humans, crop plants and animals. We examined the ability of soils' properties to influence human health through the control of organisms that are harmful to humans. We reviewed the ecological principles underpinning the regulation of soil pathogens, as well as relationships between pathogen suppression and soil health. We also reviewed how agricultural management practices can promote or interfere with soil's ability to control the persistence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Finally we draw conclusions as to how management practices can reduce the impacts of pathogens on humans and plants.
Technical Abstract: Soil and soil biodiversity play critical roles in Nature’s Contributions to People (NCP) # 10, defined as Nature’s ability to regulate direct detrimental effects on humans, and on human-important plants and animals, through the control or regulation of particular organisms considered to be harmful. We evaluate the influence of soils’ abiotic properties, in addition to effects of its extraordinary biodiversity, on pathogens in soil, with a specific focus on human and crop plant pathogens. We review the ecological principles underpinning the regulation of soil pathogens, as well as relationships between pathogen suppression and soil health. Mechanisms and specific examples are presented of how soil and soil biota are involved in regulating pathogens of humans and plants. We evaluate how specific agricultural management practices can either promote or interfere with soil’s ability to regulate pathogens. Finally, we conclude with discussion of how integrating soil, plant, animal, and human health through a “One Health” framework could point the way towards more effective, biologically-based, multifunctional management strategies that reduce impacts of pathogens on humans and plants.