Location: Forage and Range ResearchTitle: Harnessing genetic diversity for addressing wheat-based time bound food security projections: A comprehensive practical overview
|MUJEEB-KAZI, ABDUL - Texas A&M University
|ALI, NIAZ - Hazara University
|DUNDAS, IAN - Adelaide University
|LARKIN, PHILIP - Canberra
|MORGHONOV, ALEXEY - Russian Agrarian University
|OGBONNAYA, FRANCIS - Grains Research And Development Corporation
|KHAN, HANIF - Icar-Indian Institute Of Maize Research
|SAEED, NASIR - National Institute Of Biotechnology And Genetic Engineering (NIBGE)
|WANI, SHABIR - University Of Kashmir
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/16/2021
Publication Date: 4/16/2022
Citation: Mujeeb-Kazi, A., Ali, N., Dundas, I., Larkin, P., Morghonov, A., Wang, R., Ogbonnaya, F., Khan, H., Saeed, N., Wani, S., et al. 2022. Harnessing genetic diversity for addressing wheat-based time bound food security projections: A comprehensive practical overview. In: Pirzadah, T., Malik, B., Bhat, R., Hakeem, K., editors. Bioresource Technology: Concept, Tools and Experiences. 1st edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p. 160-288. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119789444.ch7.
Interpretive Summary: Scientific advances in research on wheat were reviewed and summarized to develop plans for innovative future wheat breeding to meet the 2050 target of wheat production.
Technical Abstract: Wheat is a staple food crop and a major contributor towards global food security. The futuristic targets for 2050 have been correlated with food supply for approximately 9.7 billion inhabitants on our planet earth. The current annual global production estimates are slightly less than 780 million tons that must be increased by about 1.7% per annum to deliver 1 billion tons by 2050; an increase projection that has fallen short over the past two years. To meet the challenges of yield enhancement and sustainability, research towards enhancing adaptive capacity embracing research across multiple disciplinary areas and management facets is needed. We have earlier seen dramatic yield increases in late 1960’s with the release of Mexican bred semi-dwarf wheats in Pakistan and India; events that are labelled as green revolution. Today after nearly five decades stagnancy prevails, and numerous countries have annual yield returns reflecting significant yield gaps. This poses the question ‘how can yield be significantly augmented, how do we find new ways and means to foster an evergreen revolution and overcome the prevalent productivity gaps? It behooves us first to increase the experimental plot yields from a plateaued to approximately ten tons per hectare with tapping the under-utilized or un-utilized novel genetic diversity resources, determine the increase stability and then integrate other influencing variables to augment farm-based returns that reflect production sustainability. Diversity harnessed from novel closely or distantly related genetic resources is allele rich, and literature is loaded with examples of genetic transfers fitting the wheat/alien category. The applied practical aspects of alien gene transfers are essentially minimized by the rapid evolution in pathogens that renders the host resistant gene/s ineffective versus time coupled with drastic changes in environmental conditions globally. Though highly complex to utilize new highly valued genetic diversity resources, we shall nevertheless focus on their priority usage to exploit and combat the constraints that thwart realization of the 2050 food security target demands. The protocols for harnessing novel genetic diversity and to enhance wheat productivity in a timely manner integration of conventional and innovative research has a determining role. The conventional aspects are covered broadly and greater emphasis here is addressing the innovative course to follow, touching upon integration of sound ways for providing swift futuristic outputs. The resource options are numerous and we however shall conclude our coverage by sharing our perceptions and that research priorities will consider the challenges ahead posed by the constraints prevalent and anticipated to emerge for handling food security. The win-win situation would be to set priorities that are able to combat all major wheat productivity constraints over mega-environments and location specific situations by delivering outputs that influence even the subtle ramifications of these hazards.