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Research Project: Rift Valley Fever Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Control Measures

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Title: Schmallenberg disease - A newly emerged Culicoides-borne viral disease of ruminants

Author
item ENDALEW, ABAINEH - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
item FABURAY, BONTO - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
item Wilson, William
item RICHT, JUERGEN - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Viruses
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/9/2019
Publication Date: 11/15/2019
Citation: Endalew, A., Faburay, B., Wilson, W.C., Richt, J. 2019. Schmallenberg disease - A newly emerged Culicoides-borne viral disease of ruminants. Viruses. 11(11):1065. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111065.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111065

Interpretive Summary: Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a insect transmitted virus that affects mainly ruminants such as cattle, sheep and goats. The disease first appeared in Northern Europe in 2011, causing abortions in cattle and congenital deformities in calves, lambs and goat kids. It is transmitted by bitting midges (Culicoides). Natural infections induce a solid protective immunity with SBV-specific antibodies persisting for at least 4 or 6 years in sheep and cattle, respectively. SBV Infection can be diagnosed directly by genetic tests and virus isolation or indirectly by serological assays. Three vaccines have been made commercially available in Europe. This article reviews the literature on this emerging disease regarding pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, control and prevention.

Technical Abstract: Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup viruses that affects mainly ruminants such as cattle, sheep and goats. The disease first appeared in Northern Europe in 2011, causing abortions in cattle and congenital deformities in calves, lambs and goat kids. It is transmitted by Culicoides midges of the Obsoletus complex. Natural infections induce a solid protective immunity with SBV-specific antibodies persisting for at least 4 or 6 years in sheep and cattle, respectively. SBV Infection can be diagnosed directly by real-time PCR and virus isolation or indirectly by serological assays such as ELISA, virus neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests. Three vaccines have been made commercially available in Europe. This article reviews the literature on this emerging disease regarding pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, control and prevention.