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ARS Home » Plains Area » Brookings, South Dakota » Integrated Cropping Systems Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #378084

Research Project: Soil and Crop Management for Enhanced Soil Health, Resilient Cropping Systems, and Sustainable Agriculture in the Northern Great Plains

Location: Integrated Cropping Systems Research

Title: Yield and economic performance of crop rotation systems in South Dakota

Author
item FENG, HANXIAO - South Dakota State University
item WANG, TONG - South Dakota State University
item Osborne, Shannon
item KUMAR, SANDEEP - South Dakota State University

Submitted to: Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/21/2021
Publication Date: 8/4/2021
Citation: Feng, H., Wang, T., Osborne, S.L., Kumar, S. 2021. Yield and economic performance of crop rotation systems in South Dakota. Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment. 4(3). Article e20196. https://doi.org/10.1002/agg2.20196.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/agg2.20196

Interpretive Summary: Local crop management practices, soil types and weather patterns are important factors when choosing a specific cropping system. The study was conducted to compare the economic return of different three 4-yr diverse crop rotations to a 2-yr traditional crop rotation of the study region. Rotations included were: 1) corn-soybean-spring wheat-pea (CSSwP), 2) corn-pea-winter wheat-soybean (CPWwS), 3) corn-oat-winter wheat-soybean (COWwS), and 4) corn-soybean (CS). Total cost for the 2-yr CS rotation was 7.4, 17.6 and 13.9% greater than the COWwS, CSSwP and CPWwS rotations, respectively. Corn yield for CS rotation was similar to the 4-yr rotation CSSwP and COWwS, soybean yield for 2-yr rotation was the lowest among all rotations. Additionally, when nitrogen fertilizer application rate was lower than that recommended for maximum yield, the CS rotation lacked resiliency as indicated by a decline in gross revenue and net revenue. In contrast, the CSSwP rotation was more resilient to less nitrogen fertilizer application. Among all the studied crop rotations, the CSSwP has the highest net revenue, surpassing the CS by $36.42 ha-1. Our results suggest that extending the traditional CS rotation to the more diversified CSSwP rotation could be an economically feasible practice in Northern Great Plains that simultaneously reduces input cost and increases system resiliency.

Technical Abstract: Crop yield and economic profitability, which are highly dependent on local crop management, soil characteristics and weather conditions, are important influential factors when choosing a cropping system. The objective of this study was to compare the economic return of different three 4-yr diverse crop rotations to a 2-yr traditional crop rotation of the study region. The rotations included were: 1) corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (CSSwP), 2) corn-pea-winter wheat-soybean (CPWwS), 3) corn-oat (Avena sativa L.)-winter wheat-soybean (COWwS), and 4) corn-soybean (CS). Data showed that total cost for the CS rotation was 7.4, 17.6 and 13.9% greater than the COWwS, CSSwP and CPWwS rotations, respectively. While corn yield for CS rotation was comparable to the CSSwP and COWwS 4-yr rotations, soybean yield for CS rotation was the lowest among all the rotations. When nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rate was less than that required for the maximum yield, the CS rotation demonstrated a lack of resiliency as indicated by a decline in gross revenue and net revenue. In contrast, the CSSwP rotation was more resilient to less N fertilizer application. Among all the studied crop rotations, the CSSwP has the highest net revenue, surpassing the CS by $36.42 ha-1. Our results suggest that extending the traditional CS rotation to the more diversified CSSwP rotation could be an economically feasible practice in Northern Great Plains that simultaneously reduces input cost and increases system resiliency.