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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Griffin, Georgia » Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #374632

Research Project: Conservation, Characterization, Evaluation, and Distribution of Grain, Oilseed, Vegetable, Subtropical and Tropical Legume, and Warm Season Grass Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Variability for oil, protein, lignan, tocopherol, and fatty acid concentrations in eight sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes

Author
item Morris, John - Brad
item Wang, Ming
item Tonnis, Brandon

Submitted to: Industrial Crops and Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/18/2021
Publication Date: 2/18/2021
Citation: Morris, J.B., Wang, M.L., Tonnis, B.D. 2021. Variability for oil, protein, lignan, tocopherol, and fatty acid concentrations in eight sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes. Industrial Crops and Products. 164:(2021) 113355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2021.113355.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2021.113355

Interpretive Summary: Oil, protein, lignan, vitamin E, and fatty acid content in sesame plants is very important for other scientists to know so they can use them to develop varieties with enhanced levels of these biochemicals. Several sesame types showed that biochemicals were found to be high enough for potential use in the functional health food industry.

Technical Abstract: Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oil seed with edible and potentially nutritional and medical uses in most countries and may show variability for biochemical concentrations. Sesame seeds consist of oil, protein, lignans, tocopherols, and fatty acids with potential use as a functional health food. However, knowledge is limited regarding the variation for these biochemicals in sesame genotypes in the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit (PGRCU) germplasm collection. The objective of this study was to evaluate oil, protein, lignan, tocopherol, and fatty acid concentrations in seeds from 8 randomly diverse sesame genotypes with various seed coat colors over two years. Oil was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on a Bruker mq-one minispec and protein was measured by combustion on an Elementar Rapid N Exceed nitrogen analyzer. Lignans and tocopherols were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an Agilent 1100. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography on an Agilent 7890A with a 15 m DB23 analytical column and flame ionization detector (FID). All of the biochemicals were significantly influenced by genotype, except for heptadecenoic acid (17:1), while sesamolin, y-tocopherol, and oleic acid (18:1) were influenced by year. Oil, protein, d-tocopherol, and marjaric acid (17:0) showed a year x genotype interaction. Significant oil and protein concentrations ranged from 29.43 to 54.69% and 13.92 to 21.76%, respectively. Sesamin and sesamolin ranged significantly from 0.55 to 8.98 mg/g and tocopherols ranged from 0 to 239.58 µg/g. The unsaturated fatty acids, oleic (18:1) and linoleic (18:2) acids significantly ranged from 26.60 to 54.85% while the other unsaturated fatty acids ranged from 0.13 to 0.89%. The saturated fatty acids significantly ranged from 0 to 10.58%. Several correlations were observed among all of the biochemicals. The 8 sesame genotypes can be used in breeding programs to develop new cultivars with enhanced biochemicals.