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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Griffin, Georgia » Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #372060

Research Project: Conservation, Characterization, Evaluation, and Distribution of Grain, Oilseed, Vegetable, Subtropical and Tropical Legume, and Warm Season Grass Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Peanut FAD 2 genotype and growing location interactions significantly affect the level of Oleic acid in seeds

Author
item Tonnis, Brandon
item Wang, Ming
item LI, XIANRAN - Iowa State University
item WANG, JIANPING - University Of Florida
item PUPPALA, NAVEEN - New Mexico State University
item Tallury, Shyamalrau - Shyam
item YU, JIANMING - Iowa State University

Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/23/2020
Publication Date: 7/23/2020
Citation: Tonnis, B.D., Wang, M.L., Li, X., Wang, J., Puppala, N., Tallury, S.P., Yu, J. 2020. Peanut FAD 2 genotype and growing location interactions significantly affect the level of Oleic acid in seeds. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. https://doi.org/10.1002/aocs.12401.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/aocs.12401

Interpretive Summary: Oleic acid is a healthy fat, and the relative amount in peanut seeds can affect their nutritional quality. Because of this, researchers and plant breeders are looking for ways to increase the oleic acid content in peanut products. The amount of oleic acid in seeds is mainly controlled by genetics, but environmental conditions such as the temperature during seed development can also have a big effect. To test the effects of genes and environment on seed oil composition, we grew peanuts at different locations having different growing temperatures over two years and measured differences in the oleic acid content. Peanut seeds varied widely in their oleic acid content, and genetic differences largely accounted for this variation. However, when comparing plants with no genetic difference, seeds produced in areas that had higher average temperatures during the growing season had higher oleic acid content than the comparable seeds from areas with cooler average temperatures. Peanut breeders, farmers, and product processors can use this research to manipulate peanut seed oil composition through genetic variety selection as well growing location.

Technical Abstract: The level of oleic acid is an important parameter in determining seed nutritional quality and oil stability. The level of oleic acid in peanut is genetically controlled by a pairs of fatty acid desaturase genes (FAD2A and FAD2B), but the environmental conditions of the production sites can also have a significant effect. To investigate the effect of gene and environment interaction, 45 accessions were grown at three locations (Citra, FL; Byron, GA; and Clovis, NM) for two years. Environmental data were collected; individual plants were genotyped with functional SNP markers from FAD2A and FAD2B; and seed fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Three FAD2A/FAD2B genotypes (448G/no insertion 442A, 448A/no insertion 442A, and 448A/insertion 442A) were identified and designated as G/W, A/W, and A/A, respectively. A/A genotype averaged the highest level of oleic acid (80.0%), followed by A/W (56.0%), and then G/W (40.7%). Analysis of gene and environment interaction revealed oleic acid phenotype plasticity. The levels of oleic acid from the same genotype A/W grown at different locations were significantly different, with Florida (63.9%) being the highest, followed by Georgia (55.8%) and then New Mexico (48.1%). The oleic acid plasticity revealed in this study would be useful for breeders, farmers and product processors.