Location: Virus and Prion ResearchTitle: An overview of research at the National Animal Disease Center on endemic and emerging viral diseases of swine
|FLEMING, DAMARIUS - Orise Fellow|
|INDERSKI, BLAKE - Orise Fellow|
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/9/2019
Publication Date: 11/2/2019
Citation: Anderson, T.K., Buckley, A.C., Miller, L.C., Fleming, D.S., Inderski, B., Lager, K.M., Faaberg, K.S. 2019. An overview of research at the National Animal Disease Center on endemic and emerging viral diseases of swine. Meeting Abstract. p. 80.
Technical Abstract: Objective: Our ARS project has four objectives: identify pathogenic mechanisms of swine Nidovirales, including those of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) and emerging porcine coronaviruses; discover vaccines, including identifying mechanisms to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses; identify and monitor genetic and antigenic evolution in Nidovirales and emerging viral pathogens; and identify mechanisms of pathogenesis, transmission, and immunity for emerging viral diseases of swine. Methods: In vivo and in vitro research has focused on investigating mechanisms of pathogenesis, transmission, immunity, evolution, and methods of intervention for PRRSV, porcine coronaviruses, and senecavirus A. Results: Transmission and pathology studies with SVA demonstrated viral shedding patterns and optimal times for sample collection for diagnosis. Vaccine formulations for PRRSV, PEDV and PDCoV were developed and tested. Network analyses on mRNA and miRNA data revealed multiple gene expression pathways are altered following PRRSV infection. The US Swine Pathogen Database has established a resource for 31,000 PRRSV, 5000 PEDV, 4000 ASFV, and 224 SVA sequences with convenient tools to retrieve, display, and select data for analyses. Our PRRSV data reveal multiple cocirculating clades of viruses in gene and genome trees that were divergent from available vaccines. Conclusions: Evolutionary analyses show the dynamic landscape of PRRSV evolution with the cocirculation of multiple genetic clades that are not controlled by current vaccine strategies. Our animal pathogenesis studies aid swine veterinarians and producers in making on-farm decisions to prevent disease and/or reduce transmission if farms become infected. Our immunology studies reveal inhibition and activation of networks involved in viral entry, proliferation, and pro-inflammatory signaling may underlie the ability of PRRSV to hinder host homeostasis. This demonstrates the challenges facing swine agriculture, and how integrated programs that include surveillance with in silico and in vivo studies can result in applied solutions.