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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #368894

Research Project: Genetic Optimization of Maize for Different Production Environments

Location: Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research

Title: Combining ability and heterosis for agronomic traits, husk and cob pigment concentration of maize

item KHAMPHASAN, PONSAWAN - Khon Kaen University
item LOMTHAISONG, KHOMSORN - Khon Kaen University
item HARAKOTR, BHORNCHAI - Khon Kaen University
item Scott, Marvin
item LERTRAT, KAMOL - Khon Kaen University
item SURIHARN, BHALANG - Khon Kaen University

Submitted to: Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/27/2020
Publication Date: 10/29/2020
Citation: Khamphasan, P., Lomthaisong, K., Harakotr, B., Scott, M.P., Lertrat, K., Suriharn, B. 2020. Combining ability and heterosis for agronomic traits, husk and cob pigment concentration of maize. Agriculture. 10(11). Article 510.

Interpretive Summary: Cob and husks are low value co-products of corn production. Normally they are not pigmented, but it is possible to develop varieties with pigmented cobs and husks. This could increase the value of these co-products because pigments can be extracted and sold as a high value product. In this study, we examined genetic factors controlling the level of pigmentation in the cob and husks of high yielding hybrids. The resulting data reveals how to select parent lines for making hybrids with the desirable traits. This information will be valuable to plant breeders and seed companies wishing to produce high yielding hybrids with purple cob and husk tissue for pigment extraction. Availability of such hybrids would lead to an inexpensive source of safe natural pigments for food and industrial products.

Technical Abstract: Extraction of phytochemicals from corn waste products such as cob and husk are a good way to add value to corn production. Combining ability information on phytochemicals in cob and husk of field corn is important to evaluate inbred lines for potential to produce high value. Therefore, the objective was to estimate general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and heterosis for grain yield, agronomic traits, anthocyanin yield (TAY), total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities determined by the DPPH and TEAC methods in purple feild corn. A North Carolina design ' mating design was used with 10 parental lines, including five unpigmented females and five pigmented males. The experiment was conducted in two locations in the dry season of 2016/2017. The results showed that variation among hybrids was significant for all traits. The GCA and SCA were significant indicating that both additive and non-additive gene effects were important. Unpigmented Inbred lines P3 and P5 were good general combiners for grain yield. The pigmented lines P7 and P9 good combiners for phytochemical traits in husk and cob, respectively. Most F1 hybrids had significantly higher mean values of TAC, TPC, DPPH and TEAC in husk and cob than pigmented check varieties. The strategy of combining males without pigment with pigmented females results in hybrids with yellow grain, and purple husks and cobs that that can be used for phytochemical production and utilization of inbred lines.