Location: Livestock Nutrient Management ResearchTitle: Modern animal manure management: production, characteristics, and environmental concerns
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/23/2019
Publication Date: 11/11/2019
Citation: Waldrip, H., He, Z., Pagliari, P. 2019. Modern animal manure management: production, characteristics, and environmental concerns [abstract]. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting, November 10-13, 2019, San Antonio, TX. Paper No. 40-5.
Technical Abstract: Appropriate management of livestock manure is a crucial component of agronomic stewardship for soil, water and air resources. A rich source of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C), manure has historically been recycled as valuable fertilizer for crop production; however, it is often associated with emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, odor, dust and hydrogen sulfide. In addition, mishandling of manure can cause N- and P-induced eutrophication of surface and groundwater sources. A major complication with manure use is inconsistency in both concentrations and availability of major nutrients among species (e.g., swine, poultry, beef and dairy cattle, equids, small ruminants and cervids) and management techniques (e.g., cleaning frequency, bedding inclusion, composting, solid/liquid separation, organic vs. conventional). Major advances have been made to mitigate the negative impacts of manure on human and animal health, as well as air, soil and water quality. These include an improved understanding of the fate of veterinary pharmaceuticals, estrogens, pathogens and antibiotic resistance in manure. Manure is typically a bulky and heterogenous mixture of components; however, pelletizing procedures can simplify transport and soil application, as well as provide a homogenous slow-release fertilizer, biochar or biofuel source. New organomineral fertilizers provide balanced N and P contents for crops by combining manure with chemical constituents. Physical, chemical and biological techniques can remove/recover N and P from manure. These include solid/liquid separation, flocculation, precipitation, and denitrification of manure to ensure that soils near concentrated animal feeding operations receive appropriate amounts of required nutrients without over-enriching a limited land base. Advancements in thermochemical processing, such as combustion, pyrolysis and gasification, have enabled use of the C in manure as a source of bioenergy and biochar. This presentation reviews current information on manure characteristics, new processing technologies, and methods developed to maximize manure use while mitigating negative environmental impact.