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Title: A Western-type dietary pattern induces an atherogenic gene expression profile in the coronary arteries of the Ossabaw pig

Author
item WALKER, MAURA - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY
item MATTHAN, NIRUPA - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY
item LAMON-FAVA, STEFANIA - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY
item Solano-Aguilar, Gloria
item JANG, SAEBYEOL
item Lakshman, Sukla
item Molokin, Aleksey
item Urban, Joseph
item FAITS, TYLER - BOSTON UNIVERSITY
item JOHNSON, W - BOSTON UNIVERSITY
item LICHTENSTEIN, ALICE - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Current Developments in Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/26/2019
Publication Date: 5/1/2019
Citation: Walker, M., Matthan, N., Lamon-Fava, S., Solano-Aguilar, G., Jang, S., Lakshman, S., Molokin, A., Urban Jr, J.F., Faits, T., Johnson, W.E., Lichtenstein, A.H. 2019. A Western-type dietary pattern induces an atherogenic gene expression profile in the coronary arteries of the Ossabaw pig. Current Developments in Nutrition. 3(5). https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz023.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz023

Interpretive Summary: Current cardiovascular risk reduction guidance focuses on shifts in dietary patterns, rather than single foods or nutrients. Experimental studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which food-based diets impact the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We conducted an experimental study in which we investigated the effect of 2 food-based dietary patterns, the Western-style diet (high in saturated fat, cholesterol, and refined grain) and the Heart Healthy-style diet (high in unsaturated fat, unrefined grain, and fruits and vegetables) and statin therapy on the transcriptome of the left anterior descending coronary artery of the Ossabaw pig. Our results suggest that the Western-style diet induces a change in the transcriptome of the coronary artery consistent with an inflammatory atherogenic phenotype in the Ossabaw pig without a significant change by concurrent statin therapy.

Technical Abstract: Background: Current cardiovascular risk reduction guidance focuses on shifts in dietary patterns, rather than single foods or nutrients. Experimental studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which food-based diets impact the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Objective: We investigated the effect of 2 food-based dietary patterns and statin therapy on the transcriptome of the left anterior descending coronary artery of the Ossabaw pig. Methods: Pigs were randomly assignedized to 1 of 4 groups and fed isocaloric diets for 6 months; Heart Healthy-style diet (high in unsaturated fat, unrefined grain, fruits/vegetables [HHD]) or Western-style diet (high in saturated fat, cholesterol, refined grain [WD]), with or without atorvastatin. A two-factor edge R analysis was used to determine differential gene expression in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Results: Relative to the HHD, the WD resulted in the differential expression of 143 genes, of which 139 genes were up-regulated and 4 genes were down-regulated (all logFC >/= 0.6, FDR < 0.10). The WD, compared to the HHD, resulted in the statistically significant up-regulation of 8 atherosclerosis associated pathways implicated in immune and inflammatory processes. There were no genes with significant differential expression attributable to statin therapy. Conclusion: These data suggest that a WD induces alterations in the transcriptome of the coronary artery consistent with an inflammatory atherogenic phenotype in the Ossabaw pig with no significant modification by concurrent statin therapy.