|RICE, KEVIN - University Of Missouri|
|IBRAHIM, AYA - University Of Udine|
|Morrison Iii, William - Rob|
Submitted to: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/7/2019
Publication Date: 12/6/2019
Citation: Kirkpatrick, D.M., Rice, K.B., Ibrahim, A., Morrison III, W.R., Leskey, T.C. 2019. Influence of harmonic radar tag attachment on nymphal Halyomorpha halys mobility, survivorship and detectability. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 167:1020-1029. https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12861.
Interpretive Summary: The brown marmorated stink bug is an invasive and harmful pest that attacks many crops over the growing season. Both adult and juvenile stages are highly mobile and can move throughout the landscape as crops change and become suitable hosts over the growing season. Since this species is very damaging, growers have had to increase their use of insecticides to protect their crops from feeding damage; increased use of insecticides has led to increased costs for growers and disruption of sustainable pest management practices. An understanding of dispersal capability for all life stages of this pest is critical for development of reliable monitoring tools and management programs. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different glue types on walking and climbing behavior, and survivorship of brown marmorated stink bug nymphs to ensure the presence of the glue and radar tag did not have any negative effects. We also examined the length of time they remained in pheromone-baited and unbaited apple trees and grass plots using a harmonic radar system. Using the harmonic radar system, we found that tagged nymphs could be relocated for up to 48 hours, with 83% of tagged and released nymphs retained by baited and unbaited apple trees on average. Overall, our results suggest that using a harmonic radar system is an effective method for studying brown marmorated stink bug nymphal movement.
Technical Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is a polyphagous invasive insect and currently one of the most threatening agricultural pests in the USA and globally. Nymphs are highly mobile, moving among host plants and causing significant damage. Thus, understanding dispersal biology for all life stages is critical for the development of reliable monitoring and management programs. Here, we evaluated the influence of harmonic radar as a tool to study dispersal ecology of nymphal H. halys. We measured the impact of glues and tag attachment on survivorship and mobility in the laboratory, and validated that tagged and released nymphs could be tracked on baited and unbaited host and non-host plants using harmonic radar. In the laboratory, four glues were evaluated for attaching harmonic radar tags securely to nymphs, and survivorship with attached tags was measured. There were no significant differences in survivorship or vertical and horizontal movement among nymphs with tags affixed with the glue treatments compared with the untagged control. Based on numerically greater survivorship of nymphs with tags affixed with Loctite glass glue, a field validation study of tagged nymphs released in host (apple tree) and non-host (mowed grass) with or without H. halys pheromonal stimuli present revealed that nymphs could be successfully relocated using harmonic radar after 48 h. Among treatments, 83% of nymphs remained in baited and unbaited apple trees, 50% of nymphs remained in baited mowed grass plots, and in unbaited mowed grass plots, 17% of fifths and 0% of fourths were retained. The absence of negative effects on mobility, survivorship, and field tracking validates that of harmonic radar can be used to study dispersal ecology of nymphal H. halys.