Location: Tropical Crops and Germplasm ResearchTitle: Physicochemical evaluation of ten avocado varieties
|GUBBUCK, HAMIDE - Akdeniz University|
|TWUMASI, YAW - Southern University And A & M College|
|LEDESMA, NORIS - Environmental Laboratory, Us Army Engineer Research And Development Center, Waterways Experiment St|
Submitted to: Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/21/2019
Publication Date: 9/11/2019
Citation: Ayala Silva, T., Gubbuck, H., Twumasi, Y., Ledesma, N. 2019. Physicochemical evaluation of ten avocado varieties. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 103(2):197-204.
Interpretive Summary: The expansion of world trade markets, intensification of cultural differences and a higher demand for healthy and assorted food crops have opened an opportunity for the increased trade and promotion of tropical and subtropical fruits like avocado. Limited information is available on physical-chemical characteristics of avocado cultivars and their health characteristics. This study was conducted to evaluate yield performance and fruit quality traits of 10 avocado cultivars from the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station avocado collection in Miami, FL . The varieties mostly of the Central American and Caribbean origin were studied to increase the knowledge (size, weight, and color) of varieties unknown to the general public for this fruit. The cultivars ‘Aycock Red #3’, ‘Belize’, ‘Butler’, ‘Donaldson’, ‘Ereguayquin #7,’ ‘Jose Antonio’, ‘Lima Late’, ‘Orizaba 3’, ‘Marcus’, and ‘Tensen’ were selected to deremine their average weight (fruit, pulp, and seed ), length, diameter, shape; texture, color, race, flower type, peeling and ripening time determined. Differences in fruit size and fruit weight were observed. Among the varieties studied 'Jose Antonio’ was the heaviest, whereas ‘Belize' had the lowest weight. ‘Lima Late’ and ‘Jose Antonio’ had the highest pulp content, however, there was a difference in seed weight among these two varieties. The fruit shape consisted of three varieties having oval fruit, two narrowly-oval, two pear shaped and three elongated (cucumber) shape. Most of them showed a soft green skin and easy to peel. Eating maturity for most varieties ranged from 3-6 days. Information provided herein includes detailed characterization and evaluation for important agronomic traits and/or superior performance of these avocado varieties. The information provided should help researchers and growers make best of use of these varieties by providing important fruit traits for these varieties.
Technical Abstract: Ten avocado varieties mostly of West Indian (WI) origin were characterized to increase the awareness (size, weight, and color) of varieties unknown to the public for this fruit. The fruits from the United States Department of Agriculture, Germplasm Repository System, Miami, FL avocado collection: ‘Aycock red #3’, ‘Belize’, ‘Butler’, ‘Donaldson’,‘Ereguayquin #7,’ ‘Jose Antonio’, ‘Lima Late’, ‘Orizaba 3’, ‘Marcus’, and ‘Tensen’ were categorized for: weight (fruit, pulp, and seed), length, diameter, fruit shape, texture, color, race, flower type, peel characteristics (roughness and difficulty of peeling) and maturity time. Differences in fruit size and fruit weight were found. Of the 10 varieties ‘Jose Antonio’ showed the highest weight, whereas ‘Belize' showed the lowest. ‘Lima Late’ and ‘Jose Antonio’ showed the highest pulp content, however, there was a significant difference in seed weight amongst these two varieties. As for fruit shape, three varieties were obovate, two narrowly-obovate, two pyriform and three clavate (cucumber shape). Most of them showed a soft green skin and easy to hand peel. Peak ripeness of some varieties ranged from 3-6 days. Most of these varieties, such as ‘Jose Antonio’, ‘Tensen’, ‘Lima Late’ could be of great interest to commercial growers and consumers in Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic and countries which prefer large size avocado.