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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Boston, Massachusetts » Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #355106

Research Project: Cardiovascular Nutrition and Health

Location: Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging

Title: Effect of dietary carbohydrate type on serum cardiometabolic risk indicators and adipose tissue inflammatory markers

Author
item Meng, Huicui - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Matthan, Nirupa - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Fried, Susan - The Icahn School Of Medicine At Mount Sinai
item Berciano, Silvia - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Walker, Maura - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Galluccio, Jean - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Lichtenstein, Alice - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University

Submitted to: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/18/2018
Publication Date: 6/21/2018
Citation: Meng, H., Matthan, N.R., Fried, S.K., Berciano, S., Walker, M.E., Galluccio, J.M., Lichtenstein, A.H. 2018. Effect of dietary carbohydrate type on serum cardiometabolic risk indicators and adipose tissue inflammatory markers. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-00667.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-00667

Interpretive Summary: Data from observational studies consistently indicate that diets high in unrefined carbohydrate are associated with increased risk of heart disease and diabetes. Data from intervention studies are limited, have heterogeneous findings, and report relatively few measures other than serum lipids and inflammatory marker concentrations. This study was designed to compare an isocaloric exchange of simple-, refined- and unrefined-carbohydrates on serum cardiometabolic risk indicators, fat tissue inflammatory markers, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells fractional cholesterol efflux. The variable component of this randomized-controlled cross over trial was an isocaloric exchange of simple- (sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup), refined- (white rice, bread and pasta) or unrefined- (whole grain bread and pasta, and brown rice) carbohydrate containing foods. Fasting serum LDL- and nonHDL-cholesterol concentrations were higher after the refined- compared to simple- or unrefined-carbohydrate enriched diets. Other serum measures, ex vivo fractional cholesterol efflux and fat tissue gene expression and ex vivo cytokine secretion were similar among diets. These data indicate that diets enriched in refined- compared to simple- or unrefined-carbohydrate resulted in higher fasting serum LDL- and nonHDL-cholesterol concentrations but had little effect on other cardiometabolic risk indicators. This study raises the intriguing possibility that refined-carbohydrate may have unique adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk indicators distinct from simple- and unrefined-carbohydrates.

Technical Abstract: Context and Objective: Direct comparisons among types of dietary carbohydrate on cardiometabolic risk indicators are limited. This study was designed to compare an isocaloric exchange of simple-, refined- and unrefined-carbohydrate on serum cardiometabolic risk indicators, adipose tissue inflammatory markers, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) fractional cholesterol efflux. Design, Participants and Measures: Participants (postmenopausal women and men [N=11], 65 +/- 8 y, BMI 29.8 +/- 3.2 kg/m^2, LDL-cholesterol = 2.6 mmol/L) were provided with diets (60%E total carbohydrate, 15%E protein, 25%E fat) for 4.5 weeks each using a randomized cross-over design, with 2-week washout periods. The variable component was an isocaloric exchange of simple-, refined- or unrefined-carbohydrate containing foods. Serum was used to determine lipoprotein, glucose, insulin and inflammatory marker concentrations. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was aspirated to assess macrophage and inflammatory marker gene expression, and ex vivo cytokine secretion, and PBMCs were isolated to assess ex vivo fractional cholesterol efflux. Results: Fasting serum LDL- and nonHDL-cholesterol concentrations were higher after the refined- compared to simple- or unrefined-carbohydrate enriched diets (P < 0.01). Other serum measures, ex vivo fractional cholesterol efflux and adipose tissue gene expression and ex vivo cytokine secretion were similar among diets. Conclusions: Diets enriched in refined- compared to simple- or unrefined-carbohydrate resulted in higher fasting serum LDL- and nonHDL-cholesterol concentrations, but had little effect on other cardiometabolic risk indicators. This small study raises the intriguing possibility that refined-carbohydrate may have unique adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk indicators distinct from simple- and unrefined-carbohydrate.