|Edwards, Andrea - University Of Wisconsin|
|Riehle, Christina - University Of Wisconsin|
|Cox, Madison - University Of Wisconsin|
|Raabis, Sarah - University Of Wisconsin|
|Steinberger, Andrew - University Of Wisconsin|
|Skarlupka, Joseph - University Of Wisconsin|
|Suen, Garret - University Of Wisconsin|
Submitted to: Scientific Reports
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/28/2019
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: It is thought that bacteria that grow in the developing stomach of cows impacts the further development of the cow’s gut, and resultant production efficiency changes. However, little is known about how the colonization of bacteria can change the animal. Chemical changes in the animal are caused by enzymes and are in turn controlled by the expression of specific genes. This experiment introduces adult rumen content to new born calves to see if this treatment introduces physiological changes in the host by looking at a whole array of genes in calf liver. In turn, it is possible to figure out how these genes lead to specific developmental characteristics. Ultimately, our experiment will facilitate the design of probiotic treatment in young dairy calves with the aim to give the cow a highly active and efficient working gut that leads to good health, and production efficiency.
Technical Abstract: In mammals, microbial colonization in digestive tract (GIT) occurs right after birth by the main bacterial groups. Numerous human and mouse studies have reported the importance of early gut microbial inhabitants on host health. However, few attempts have been undertaken to understand the role of early gut/rumen microbial colonization on GIT development or host health in neonatal ruminants. Thus, the molecular changes associated with bacterial colonization are largely unknown in cattle. In this study, we examined host liver transcriptome changes in response to dosing with exogenous rumen fluid in the early life of the calf, starting at birth, and repeated every other week. Ruminal content from an adult cow was used for the experiment. Eight Holstein calves were used in this study: four treated with rumen content freshly extracted from an adult cow, and four treated with sterilized rumen content as a control. Liver tissues were subjected to transcriptome analysis using RNA-sequencing. Additionally, rumen papilla microbial community classification was performed using rRNA reads. Liver transcriptome changes included enrichment in mRNAs corresponding to genes involved in cell signaling and protein phosphorylation. Specifically, up-regulation of SGPL1 suggests a potential increase in metabolism of sphingolipids, an essential molecular signal for bacterial survival in digestive tracts. Our study provides insight into host liver transcriptome changes associated with early colonization of microbial community in neonatal calves. Such knowledge provides a foundation for future probiotics-based research in microbial organism-mediated rumen development and nutrition.