Skip to main content
ARS Home » Southeast Area » Florence, South Carolina » Coastal Plain Soil, Water and Plant Conservation Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #354183

Research Project: Improvement of Soil Management Practices and Manure Treatment/Handling Systems of the Southern Coastal Plain

Location: Coastal Plain Soil, Water and Plant Conservation Research

Title: Efficacy of different biochars in removing odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from swine manure

Author
item Hwang, Okhwa - Korean Rural Development Administration
item Lee, Sang - Korean Rural Development Administration
item Cho, Sung - Korean Rural Development Administration
item Ro, Kyoung
item Spiehs, Mindy
item Woodbury, Bryan
item Silva, Philip - Phil
item Han, Doug - Korean Rural Development Administration
item Choi, Hee - Korean Rural Development Administration
item Kim, Ki - Korean Rural Development Administration
item Jung, Min-woong - Korean Rural Development Administration

Submitted to: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/11/2018
Publication Date: 9/24/2018
Citation: Hwang, O., Lee, S.R., Cho, S.B., Ro, K.S., Spiehs, M.J., Woodbury, B.L., Silva, P.J., Han, D.W., Choi, H.C., Kim, K.Y., Jung, M. 2018. Efficacy of different biochars in removing odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from swine manure. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02881.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02881

Interpretive Summary: Biochar is a carbonaceous solid product from heating biomass in the absence of air. It has been widely researched as a soil amendment to improve soil quality. In this research, we evaluated the potential of various biochars in removing swine manure odorous volatile organic compounds via laboratory sorption experiments. The biochars were made from pyrolyzing poultry litter, swine manure, oak, and coconut shell at 350 and 500 degree Celsius (0C) along with swine-manure and commercial coconut-shell activated carbons. Among the fifteen odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) examined, acetic acid was the most predominant compound in the emitted gas from swine manure; however, its contribution to the complex swine manure odor mixture was minimal. Animal-manure-based biochars were poor sorbents for reduced sulfur compounds. In contrast, plant-biomass-based biochars had considerably larger sorption capacity for the sulfur compounds. Oak biochar pyrolyzed at 500 oC (OK500) showed high sorption capacities. Although the sorption capacity of OK500 is less than that of commercial activated carbon, it may be more economically advantageous if the spent biochar can be applied to soil as a soil amendment.

Technical Abstract: The potential of various biochars in removing swine manure odorous volatile organic compounds were investigated via laboratory sorption experiments. The biochars were made from pyrolyzing poultry litter, swine manure, oak, and coconut shell at 350 and 500 degree Celsius (0C) along with swine-manure and commercial coconut-shell activated carbons. Sorption capacities of fifteen odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of reduced sulfur (S) compounds, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), phenolic and indole compounds emitted from swine manure were investigated using a laboratory-scale sorption column system. Acetic acid was the most predominant compound in the emitted gas from swine manure; however, its contribution to the complex swine manure odor mixture was minimal. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) were the two most odor-causing VOCs in the swine manure emissions. Animal-manure-based biochars were poor sorbents for DMDS and DMTS. In contrast, plant-biomass-based biochars had considerably larger sorption capacity for DMDS and DMTS. Oak biochar pyrolyzed at 500 oC (OK500) showed high sorption capacities for both DMDS and DMTS. Although the sorption capacity of OK500 for DMDS is less than that of commercial activated carbon, it may be more economically advantageous if the spent biochar can be applied soil as a soil amendment.