|WALLINGFORD, ANNA - Cornell University
|RICE, KEVIN - University Of Missouri
|LOEB, GREGORY - Cornell University
Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/13/2018
Publication Date: 8/14/2018
Citation: Wallingford, A.K., Rice, K.B., Leskey, T.C., Loeb, G.M. 2018. Overwintering behavior of Drosophila suzukii, and potential springtime diets for egg maturation. Environmental Entomology. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvy115.
Interpretive Summary: Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a serious invasive agricultural pest that lays eggs in ripe small fruit such as blueberries and raspberries and in wild host plants. We measured the ability of SWD to survive winter conditions in New York and West Virginia. We found that cold acclimated flies survived better than those that were not. Cold acclimated flies were able to walk farther in low temperature mobility assays than unacclimated flies. More acclimated flies preferred overwintering substrates with a food source (dropped apple) over any other substrate (leaf litter, barky sticks, or bare soil). These results provide insights how SWD may survive in more northerly climates.
Technical Abstract: Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: Drosophilidae), is a serious agricultural pest, which lays eggs in ripe and ripening fruits of several cultivated and wild host plants. Here, we explore several factors that may be critical to winter survival and improve D. suzukii’s ability to successfully overwinter in northern climates and re-establish populations in the spring. Cold acclimated flies were able to walk farther in low temperature mobility assays than unacclimated flies. More acclimated flies survived wintertime field studies conducted in New York and West Virginia. Acclimated flies preferred overwintering substrates with a food source (dropped apple) over any other substrate (leaf litter, barky sticks, or bare soil). Soil acts to buffer temperatures in potential overwintering sites, as temperatures drop and as they rise. Pigeon droppings and mushrooms were identified as potential overwintering protein sources, which could be critical to springtime egg maturation and repair of cold-damaged tissues. Laboratory-simulated winter stress negatively influenced return to female reproductive status, so future assays should consider biologically relevant subjects.