|BELURY, MARTHA - The Ohio State University|
Submitted to: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/21/2018
Publication Date: 7/31/2019
Publication URL: https://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/6725497
Citation: Raatz, S.K., Conrad, Z.S., Jahns, L.A., Belury, M.A., Picklo, M.J. 2019. Modeled replacement of traditional soybean and canola oil with high oleic varieties increases MUFA and reduces both SFA and PUFA intake in the US adult population. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy127.
Interpretive Summary: High oleic oils are being introduced as replacements for unhealthy trans-fatty acid containing fats and oils. The purposes of this study were to 1) identify major food sources of soybean and canola oil, 2) estimate effects of replacing SO and CO with HO varieties on fatty acid intake, and 3) compare predicted intakes to the recommended intake levels of linoleic acid (LA) and a-linolenic acid (ALA). Food and nutrient intake from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-2014 from 21,029 individuals 20+ y of age were used to model dietary changes. We estimated intake of fatty acids with replacement of high oleic for traditional soybean and canola oils at 10%, 25%, and 50% and evaluated compliance with dietary recommendations at these levels. Replacement of traditional oils with high oleic varieties will increase monounsaturated fat intake and reduce both saturated and polyunsaturated fat intake. Replacement of traditional with HO oils at 25-50% places specific adult age and sex groupings at risk for not meeting dietary recommendations for LA and ALA.
Technical Abstract: Background: High oleic (HO) seed oils are being introduced as replacements for trans-fatty acid (trans-FA) containing fats and oils. Negative health effects associated with trans-FA led to their removal from the US Generally Recognized as Safe list. HO oils formulated for use in food production may result in changes in fatty acid intake at population levels. Objective: The purposes of this study were to 1) identify major food sources of soybean (SO) and canola oil (CO), 2) estimate effects of replacing SO and CO with HO varieties on fatty acid intake overall and by age-sex strata, and 3) compare predicted intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes - Adequate Intake (AI) for the essential fatty acids (EFA), a-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA). Design: Food and nutrient intake from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) waves 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 from 21,029 individuals 20+ y of age were used to model dietary changes. We estimated intake of fatty acid with replacement of HOSO and HOCO for commodity SO and CO at 10%, 25%, and 50% and evaluated the potential for meeting AI at these levels. Results: Each modeling scenario decreased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) although intake remained greater than recommended at all age and sex groupings. Models of all levels increased intake of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), especially oleic acid; and decreased intake of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly LA and ALA. Replacement of traditional with HO oils at 25-50% places specific adult age and sex groupings at risk for not meeting the AI for LA and ALA. Conclusion: Replacement of traditional oils with HO varieties will increase MUFA intake and reduce both SFA and PUFA intake including the EFAs and may place specific age and sex grouping at risk of inadequate LA and ALA intake.