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ARS Home » Plains Area » Lubbock, Texas » Cropping Systems Research Laboratory » Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #349211

Research Project: Genetic Enhancement of Sorghum as a Versatile Crop

Location: Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research

Title: Composition, functional components, and physical characteristics of grain from staygreen and senescent sorghum lines grown under variable water availability

Author
item Emendack, Yves
item Burke, John
item Bean, Scott
item Wilson, Jeff
item Hayes, Chad
item Echevarria Laza, Haydee

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/6/2018
Publication Date: 7/15/2018
Citation: Emendack, Y., Burke, J.J., Bean, S.R., Wilson, J.D., Hayes, C.M., Laza, H. 2018. Composition, functional components, and physical characteristics of grain from staygreen and senescent sorghum lines grown under variable water availability. Cereal Chemistry. 2018:1-12.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10077

Interpretive Summary: Water stress after pollination reduced grain filling, affects the grain composition, functional components and grain physical characteristics of sorghum. Staygreen sorghum lines continue to fill their grain under post-flowering water deficit. Higher total kafirin levels in sorghum grain which increased under water stress has been linked to grain hardness and low grain digestibility. Research showed staygreen lines having significantly higher total protein and total kafirin levels compared to senescent lines, irrespective of water availability. There were no differences between staygreen and senescent sorghum lines in protein digestibility, fermentation efficiency, kafirin per percent protein, kernel weight, and kernel diameter irrespective of irrigation treatment.

Technical Abstract: The inclusion of sorghum into human food and feed is limited by its low digestibility compared to corn, which has been linked to the higher total kafirin levels in sorghum grain. Water stress after pollination reduced grain filling, affects the grain composition, functional components and grain physical characteristics. Sorghum lines possessing the stay-green trait continues to fill their grain under post-flowering water deficit. Understanding the environmental effect on the grain nutritional composition and grain physical characteristics of stay-green and senescent sorghum lines will be critical for breeders when selecting traits. This research evaluated a diverse group of stay-green and senescent sorghum lines subjected to full, pre-flowering water deficit, and post-flowering water deficit irrigations. Stay-green lines had significantly higher levels of total protein and total kafirin, but lower total starch than senescent types. Higher kafirin level was linked to kernel hardness, and this level increased under water deficit. There were no differences between stay-green and senescent sorghum lines in protein digestibility, fermentation efficiency, kafirin per percent protein, kernel hardness, kernel weight, and kernel diameter irrespective of irrigation treatment. With considerable variability in grain digestibility and feeding value amongst sorghum cultivars, the effect of environments on grain nutritional composition and other quality traits should be considered to match the user’s purpose.