|Thomas, Michael - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY|
|Kim, Sharon - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY|
|Collins, F. William - AGRICULTURE AND AGRI-FOOD CANADA|
|Meydani, Mohsen - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY|
Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/15/2017
Publication Date: 1/3/2018
Citation: Thomas, M., Kim, S., Collins, F., Wise, M.L., Meydani, M. 2018. High levels of avenanthramides in oat-based diet further suppress high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice. Journal of Nutrition. https:/doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04860.
Interpretive Summary: Oats have long been viewed as a healthful, nutritious cereal grain. The ability of oats to reduce cholesterol has been recognized for over 20 years and is largely attributable to their beta-glucan content. Oats also produce a novel group of metabolites termed avenanthramides. These are, among food crops, unique to oats. A body of evidence, largely based on benchtop experiments, that suggests that avenanthramides can mediate against certain inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis has also been accumulating. This report, for the first time, provides concrete evidence that oat consumption can reduce the atherosclerotic plaque formation in mice and that avenanthramides are likely the active principal affecting this response. The impact will be providing the first direct evidence that oat consumption can reduce the development of atherosclerosis in a live animal model and that avenanthramides play a key role in this phenomenon, thus reinforcing the potential health benefits of oats and the added value of their avenanthramide content.
Technical Abstract: Background: The consumption of oats reduces plasma cholesterol, a major risk factor for heart disease. Oats, in addition to cholesterol lowering properties through its beta-glucan content, are a good source of several antioxidants including Avenanthramides (Avns), a unique group of polyphenols present only in oats. Avns inhibit both inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells in culture. This evidence suggests oats' potential anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Objective: This study evaluated the contribution of Avns of oats in suppression of high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice. Methods: Ldlr-/- mice were divided into four dietary groups: low fat control (LFC), high fat control (HFC), high fat containing oat bran low in Avns (HFLA), and high fat containing oat bran high in Avns (HFHA). Oat brans comprised 40% of the high fat diets. Avns concentration in the low Avns oat bran diet was 10 ppm, and 451 ppm in the oat bran with high Avn. Upon completion of 16 week intervention, blood cholesterol and the extent of aortic lesions were evaluated for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: Body weight increased in all animals fed a high fat diet (p<0.05). Both oat-based diets (HFLA and HFHA) reduced high fat diet-induced atheroma lesions in the aortic valve (p<0.01). However, HFHA mice had a significantly lower number of lesions in the descending aorta than mice fed HFLA. A non-significant trend toward reduction of VCAM-1 expression was present in the lesions of aortic valves of mice fed HFHA. Reduction of total cholesterol levels in plasma was the same in both oat-supplemented mice. Conclusion: Oat bran diets reduce atheroma lesions and higher levels of Avns further reduce aortic lesions compared to regular oat bran. These preliminary in vivo data indicate that consumption of oats bran, with high Avns, has demonstrable beneficial effects on prevention of cardiovascular disease.