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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Virus and Prion Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #348115

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control Endemic and New and Emerging Viral Diseases of Swine

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Small non-coding RNA expression status in animals faced with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV)

Author
item Fleming, Damarius - Orise Fellow
item Miller, Laura

Submitted to: World Congress of Genetics Applied in Livestock Production
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/26/2018
Publication Date: 5/10/2018
Citation: Fleming, D.S., Miller, L. 2018. Small non-coding RNA expression status in animals faced with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). 2018. Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume Species - Porcine 2:595.

Interpretive Summary: The battle between a pig and a pathogen includes many factors. Understanding how these factors might help the pig defeat the pathogen is a critical step in developing strategies that may protect it from future infection and disease. This study used new techniques to characterize a group of molecules that are produced in a pig’s cell in response to infection with a pathogen, in this case porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). This group of molecules includes several classes or types of RNA, a molecule that is similar to DNA and is normally found in cells. The goal of the study was to discover the changes in several types of RNA over the course of a PRRSV infection in swine. These changes provide insight into how the virus manipulates the pig’s cells, how the pig tries to defend itself against infection, and how new vaccines may be developed to prevent PRRSV disease in swine.

Technical Abstract: The commercial pig industry has long suffered economic losses due to infections from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The virus is easily spread among herds and in its lentogenic (low pathogenic) form leads to respiratory illness, reduced birthweights, stillborn piglets, sterility, and in its velogenic (high pathogenic) form death. It has been established that reduced susceptibility to PRRSV has a genetic component that may take the form of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) molecules that function as regulators of host and viral gene expression. In order to identify differences in sncRNA expression between healthy and highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) challenged pigs, a transcriptomic analysis of porcine whole blood from control and infected pigs was examined for changes in expression profiles associated with the virus. The results revealed multiple classes of sncRNA were both present and differentially expressed during HP-PRRSV infection. Some of the sncRNA identified were previously only seen during other viral respiratory infections and cancer. By assessment of the expression changes in sncRNA during infections, researchers can move closer to a discernment of how PRRSV disrupts host homeostasis and possibly uncover additional channels of detecting or destroying the virus.