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Research Project: Genetic Diversity Assessment of Cacao and Other Tropical Tree Crop Genetic Resources

Location: Sustainable Perennial Crops Laboratory

Title: Understanding the genetic structure and parentage of the clonal series of cacao UF, CC, PMCT and ARF preserved in the international cacao collection at CATIE (IC3)

Author
item ARCINIEGAS-LEAL, ADRIANA - Catie Tropical Agricultural Research
item MATA-QUIROS, ALLAN - Catie Tropical Agricultural Research
item PHILLIPS-MORA, WILBERT - Catie Tropical Agricultural Research
item Meinhardt, Lyndel
item Zhang, Dapeng

Submitted to: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Cocoa Research
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/15/2018
Publication Date: 7/5/2018
Citation: Arciniegas-Leal, A., Mata-Quiros, A., Phillips-Mora, W., Meinhardt, L.W., Zhang, D. 2018. Understanding the genetic structure and parentage of the clonal series of cacao UF, CC, PMCT and ARF preserved in the international cacao collection at CATIE (IC3). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Cocoa Research. November 13-17, 2017, Lima, Peru. 26:1-11.

Interpretive Summary: The International Cacao Collection of CATIE was created in 1944 and it holds more than 1,200 introductions, which are in the public domain. This collection holds four series of international clones that originated from Costa Rica. The objective of this study was to analyze the parentage and genetic composition of 282 cacao clones that belonging to these four series of clones by using 48 SNP markers and 228 reference clones that represent the genetic diversity of the species. The analysis revealed that these four series are primarily derived from 6 main cacao population groups with specific mixtures for each series. Each of these series have specific agronomic and disease resistant traits so understanding their genetic makeup will improve their use in cacao improvement programs around the global. This information will be used by researchers, extension staff, germplasm curators and plant breeders to improve cacao.

Technical Abstract: The International Cacao Collection of CATIE was created in 1944 and it holds more than 1.200 introductions under public domain. This collection holds four series of international clones originated in Costa Rica. The UF clones were selected by the United Fruit Co. mainly from Amelonado materials introduced from Trinidad in 1913 and from the National type, which were introduced from Ecuador in 1928. The CC (Cocoa Center) clones were selected by the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IICA) between 1957 and 1966. They are selections made from open pollination seeds of UF or Matina clones and directed crossings, which include international clones such as EET-62, ICS-1, 6 and 39, Pound-12, SCA-6 and 12, etc. TCIP (Tropical Crops Improvement Program) clones are selections made by CATIE between 1989 and 1992 from elite trees in field trials and producer farms. They are the product of crossings between international clones. It also includes domesticated genotypes collected in Nicaragua, Belize and Costa Rica. PRA (Phytogenetic Resources Area) clones were collected by CATIE in 1992 in Panama, Belize, Honduras and Costa Rica. They also include black pod resistant genotypes which were selected for CATIE interclonal trials. The study was conducted at the Sustainable Perennial Crops Laboratory (ARS-USDA) in Beltsville, MD. The objective was to analyze the kinship and genetic composition of 282 cacao clones belonging to the four series mentioned before by using 48 SNP markers and 228 reference clones that represent the genetic diversity of the species. The predominant genetic group in the clones was Amelonado, with a presence that varied between 44% (PRA series) and 60% (CC series). The National and Criollo groups have a 20 and 21% presence respectively in the UF Series, but it was less than 12% in the other series. The Contamana group had a significant presence (8-13%) in the TCIP, PRA and CC series due to the contribution made by SCA-6 and 12 in the crossings. The 10% presence of the Iquitos group in the PRA series is derived from the participation of the IMC-67 clone in some of the crossings that originated these clones. The Guyana, Curaray, Marañon and Purus genetic groups have a low participation (d 4%) in the composition of the series analyzed, except in the PRA and TCIP groups, where 9% of their composition comes from the Purus and Nanay groups respectively.