Submitted to: American Peanut Research and Education Society Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/13/2017
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: A particularly important component of seed oils is the content of oleic acid as this fatty acid has several health benefits and contributes to increased oil stability, i.e. longer shelf life. We measured 8846 available accessions of the USDA peanut germplasm collection to gauge the range of variation in oil composition; and we observed a pattern of higher oleic acid content in those accessions where the seeds had been regenerated in Florida. Therefore, we selected a subset of accessions that had multiple inventories grown in different geographical locations: Florida, Georgia, and southwestern states (OK, NM, and TX). The accessions were measured for fatty acid composition to determine the effect of growing location on oleic acid content. Oil from inventories grown in southwestern states averaged 38.70% oleic acid (range 30.61-62.31%) with 86 of 107 total having less than 40%. Inventories grown in Georgia averaged 47.61% oleic acid (range 32.57-81.87%). Those grown in Florida averaged 60.92% oleic acid (range 39.83-74.66%) with 78 of 100 total having more than 60%. Additionally, in direct comparisons of oleic content within 92 accessions, Florida-grown inventories averaged 11.77% higher than their Georgia-grown counterparts. Similarly, in 26 accessions of direct comparison, Florida-grown inventories averaged 15.35% higher than their southwestern-grown counterparts. In every instance, the inventory from Florida had a higher oleic content than the other geographic locations. In contrast, within accessions grown in Georgia and the southwest, Georgia-grown inventories averaged only 4.46% higher. Based on these findings, geographical location and/or environmental conditions appear to affect the composition of peanut seed oil. However, inventories in this study were grown across several different years. We are currently growing 52 accessions in three locations (Florida, New Mexico, and Georgia) with replicates to confirm the effect of growing location within the same year. At the same time, we are collecting detailed environmental data to determine the main factors that lead to seed oil composition differences in the accessions investigated.