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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Boston, Massachusetts » Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #338348

Research Project: Genomics, Nutrition, and Health

Location: Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging

Title: Dairy consumption and body mass index among adults: Mendelian randomization analysis of 184802 individuals from 25 studies

item HUANG, TAO - Harvard University
item DING, MING - Harvard University
item BERGHOLDT, HELLE - University Of Copenhagen
item WANG, TIANGE - Tulane University
item HEIANZA, YORIKO - Tulane University
item SUN, DIANJIANYL - Tulane University
item FRAZIER-WOOD, ALEXIS - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item ASLIBEKYAN, STELLA - University Of Alabama
item NORTH, KARI - University Of North Carolina
item VOORTMAN, TRUDY - Erasmus Medical Center
item GRAFF, MARIAELISA - University Of North Carolina
item SMITH, CAREN E - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Lai, Chao Qiang
item VARBO, ANETTE - University Of Copenhagen
item LEMAITRE, ROZENN - University Of Washington
item DE JONGE, M. ESTER - Erasmus Medical Center
item FUMERON, FRÉDÉRIC - Cordelier Research Center
item CORELLA, DOLORES - University Of Valencia
item WANG, CAROL - University Of Western Australia
item TJØNNELAND, ANNE - Danish Cancer Society Research Center
item OVERVAD, KIM - Aarhus University
item SØRENSEN, THORKILD - University Of Copenhagen
item FEITOSA, MARY - Washington University
item WOJCZYNSKI, MARY - Washington University
item KÄHÖNEN, MIKA - Tampere University Hospital
item RENSTRÖM, FRIDA - Lund University
item PSATY, BRUCE - University Of Washington
item SISCOVICK, DAVID - New York Academy Of Medicine
item BARROSO, INÊS - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
item JOHANSSON, INGEGERD - University Of Umea
item HERNANDEZ, DENA - National Institute On Aging (NIA, NIH)
item FERRUCCI, LUIGI - National Institute On Aging (NIA, NIH)
item BANDINELLI, STEFANIA - Azienda Sanitaria Di Firenze
item LINNEBERG, ALLAN - Research Centre For Prevention And Health
item ZILLIKENS, M. CAROLA - Erasmus Medical Center
item SANDHOLT, CAMILLA HELENE - University Of Copenhagen
item PEDERSON, OLUF - University Of Copenhagen
item HANSEN, TORBEN - University Of Copenhagen
item SCHULZ, CHRISTINA- - Lund University
item SONESTEDT, EMILY - Lund University
item ORHO-MELANDER, MARJU - Lund University
item CHEN, TZU-AN - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item ROTTER, JEROME - Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute
item ALLISON, MATTHEW - University Of California
item RICH, STEPHEN - University Of Virginia
item SORLI, JOSE - University Of Valencia
item COLTELL, OSCAR - University Jaume I Of Castellon
item PENNELL, CRAIG - University Of Western Australia
item EASTWOOD, PETER - University Of Western Australia
item HOFMAN, ALBERT - Erasmus Medical Center
item UITTERLINDEN, ANDRE - Erasmus Medical Center
item VAN ROOIJ, FRANK - Erasmus Medical Center
item CHU, AUDREY - Brigham & Women'S Hospital
item ROSE, LYNDA - Harvard University
item RIDKER, PAUL - Brigham & Women'S Hospital
item VIIKARI, JORMA - University Of Turku
item RAITAKARI, OLLI - University Of Turku
item LEHTIMÄKI, TERHO - University Of Tampere Medical School
item MIKKILÄ, VERA - University Of Helsinki
item WILLET, WALTER - Harvard University
item WANG, YUJIE - University Of North Carolina
item TUCKER, KATHERINE - University Of Massachusetts
item ORDOVAS, JOSE - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item KILPELÄINEN, TUOMAS - University Of Copenhagen
item PROVINCE, MICHAEL - Washington University
item FRANKS, PAUL - Lund University
item ARNETT, DONNA - University Of Alabama
item TANAKA, TOSHIKO - National Institute On Aging (NIA, NIH)
item TOFT, ULLA - Research Centre For Prevention And Health
item ERICSON, ULRIKA - Lund University
item FRANCO, OSCAR - Erasmus Medical Center
item MAZAFFARIAN, DARIUSH - Tufts University
item HU, FRANK - Harvard University
item CHASMAN, DANIEL - Harvard University
item NORDESTGAARD, BØRGE - University Of Copenhagen
item ELLERVIK, CHRISTINA - Boston Children'S Hospital
item QI, LU - Tulane University

Submitted to: Clinical Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/31/2017
Publication Date: 1/1/2018
Citation: Huang, T., Ding, M., Bergholdt, H.K., Wang, T., Heianza, Y., Sun, D., Frazier-Wood, A.C., Aslibekyan, S., North, K.E., Voortman, T., Graff, M., Smith, C., Lai, C., Varbo, A., Lemaitre, R.N., De Jonge, M.A., Fumeron, F., Corella, D., Wang, C.A., Tjønneland, A., Overvad, K., Sørensen, T.I., Feitosa, M.F., Wojczynski, M.K., Kähönen, M., Renström, F., Psaty, B.M., Siscovick, D.S., Barroso, I., Johansson, I., Hernandez, D., Ferrucci, L., Bandinelli, S., Linneberg, A., Zillikens, M., Sandholt, C., Pederson, O., Hansen, T., Schulz, C.A., Sonestedt, E., Orho-Melander, M., Chen, T., Rotter, J.I., Allison, M.A., Rich, S.S., Sorli, J.V., Coltell, O., Pennell, C.E., Eastwood, P., Hofman, A., Uitterlinden, A.G., Van Rooij, F.J., Chu, A.Y., Rose, L.M., Ridker, P.M., Viikari, J., Raitakari, O., Lehtimäki, T., Mikkilä, V., Willet, W.C., Wang, Y., Tucker, K.L., Ordovas, J.M., Kilpeläinen, T.O., Province, M.A., Franks, P.W., Arnett, D.K., Tanaka, T., Toft, U., Ericson, U., Franco, O.H., Mazaffarian, D., Hu, F.B., Chasman, D.I., Nordestgaard, B.G., Ellervik, C., Qi, L. 2018. Dairy consumption and body mass index among adults: Mendelian randomization analysis of 184802 individuals from 25 studies. Clinical Chemistry. 64(1):183-191.

Interpretive Summary: Obesity is the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors with dietary intake playing a most important role. In particular dairy products have been a nutritional staple that in recent years has been under debate for their potential association with obesity. However, the current evidence in this regard is highly controversial. Therefore, new approaches are needed to definitively put to rest this debate. Our study used a genetic-based statistical approach to examine the relation between dairy products and obesity. For this purpose, we used data from 184,802 participants in 25 epidemiological studies around the world. Specifically, we determined the presence or absence of a particular genetic variant that confers lactose tolerance and allows adults to drink milk. We then examined the relationship between this variant, dairy intake and body mass index (BMI). Our analysis reveals that carriers of the genetic variant consume more dairy products than non-carriers and have a higher BMI. Therefore, the results of this extensive and innovative study suggests that consumption of dairy products may contribute to an increase in obesity risk.

Technical Abstract: Background: Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies; and the causal relationship remains ill defined. Using the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach and meta-analysis of selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to assess whether dairy intake was causally related to BMI. Methods: We used a genetic polymorphism in MCM6 (LCT -13910 C/T, rs4988235), located upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) as an instrumental variable (IV) for dairy intake in a MR design. Linear regression models were fitted to analyze associations between 1) dairy intake and BMI, 2) rs4988235 and dairy intake, and 3) rs4988235 and BMI in each study. The causal effect of dairy intake on BMI was quantified by IV estimators among 184,802 participants from 25 studies. We further conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of RCTs on the effect of dairy consumption on changes in body weight among 3,007 participants in 37 RCTs. Findings: Higher dairy intake was significantly associated with higher BMI (beta = 0.03 kg/m2 per serving/day; 95% CI, 0.00-0.06; p=0.04), while the LCT -13910 C/T CT+TT genotype was significantly associated with higher dairy intake (beta = 0.20 serving/day; 95% CI, 0.14-0.25; p=3.15x10-12) and higher BMI (beta = 0.12 kg/m2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.17; p=2.11x10-5). The IV analysis showed that genetically higher dairy intake was significantly associated with higher BMI (beta = 0.60 kg/m2 per serving/day; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; p=3.0x10-4). In addition, our systematic review of 37 RCTs indicated that higher dairy intervention significantly increased body weight in trials without energy restriction (0.36 kg, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.70), whereas significantly decreased body weight in trials with energy restriction. Interpretation: The present study provides robust evidence to support a causal effect of higher dairy intake in the absence of caloric restriction on increased BMI.