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Research Project: Childhood Obesity Prevention

Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center

Title: Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians

Author
item Fretts, Amanda - University Of Washington
item Follis, Jack - University Of St Thomas
item Nettleton, Jennifer - University Of Texas Health Science Center
item Lemaitre, Rozenn - University Of Washington
item Ngwa, Julius - Boston University School Of Public Health
item Wojczynski, Mary - Washington University
item Kalafati, Ioanna - Harokopio University Of Athens
item Varga, Tibor - Lund University
item Frazier-wood, Alexis - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item Houston, Denise - Wake Forest School Of Medicine
item Lahti, Jari - University Of Helsinki
item Ulrika, Ericson - Lund University
item Van Den Hooven, Edith - Erasmus University
item Mikkila, Vera - University Of Helsinki
item Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica - Erasmus Medical Center
item Mozaffarian, Dariush - Tufts University
item Rice, Kenneth - University Of Washington
item Renstrom, Frida - Lund University
item North, Kari - University Of North Carolina
item Mckeown, Nicola - Tufts University
item Feitosa, Mary - Washington University
item Kanoni, Stavroula - Queen Mary University Of London
item Smith, Caren - Tufts University
item Garcia, Melissa - National Institute For Health And Welfare (HELSINKI)
item Tiainen, Anna-maija - National Institute For Health And Welfare (HELSINKI)
item Sonestedt, Emily - Lund University
item Manichaikul, Ani - University Of Virginia
item Van Rooij, Frank - Leiden University
item Dimitriou, Maria - Harokopio University Of Athens
item Raitakari, Olli - University Of Turku
item Pankow, James - University Of Minnesota
item Djousse, Luc - Brigham & Women'S Hospital
item Province, Michael - Washington University
item Hu, Frank - Harvard School Of Public Health
item Lai, Chao-qiang - Tufts University
item Keller, Margaux - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)
item Perala, Mia-maria - National Institute For Health And Welfare (HELSINKI)
item Rotter, Jerome - Harbor-Ucla Medical Center
item Hofman, Albert - University Of Turku
item Graff, Misa - University Of North Carolina
item Kahonen, Mika - University Of Tampere Medical School
item Mukamal, Kenneth - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
item Johansson, Ingegerd - University Of Umea
item Ordovas, Jose - Tufts University
item Liu, Yongmei - Wake Forest School Of Medicine
item Mannisto, Satu - National Institute For Health And Welfare (HELSINKI)
item Uitterlinden, Andre - University Of Helsinki
item Deloukas, Panos - Queen Mary University Of London
item Seppala, Ilkka - University Of Tampere Medical School
item Psaty, Bruce - University Of Washington
item Cupples, Adrienne - Boston University
item Borecki, Ingrid - Washington University
item Franks, Paul - University Of Umea
item Arnett, Donna - University Of Alabama
item Nalls, Mike - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)
item Eriksson, Johan - University Of Helsinki
item Orho-melander, Marju - Lund University
item Franco, Oscar - Erasmus University
item Lehtimaki, Terho - University Of Tampere Medical School
item Dedoussis, George - Harokopio University Of Athens
item Meigs, James - Massachusetts General Hospital
item Siscovick, David - University Of Washington

Submitted to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/5/2015
Publication Date: 9/9/2015
Citation: Fretts, A.M., Follis, J.L., Nettleton, J.A., Lemaitre, R., Ngwa, J.S., Wojczynski, M.K., Kalafati, I.P., Varga, T.V., Frazier-Wood, A.C., Houston, D.K., Lahti, J., Ulrika, E., Van Den Hooven, E.H., Mikkila, V., Kiefte-De Jong, J.C., Mozaffarian, D., Rice, K., Renstrom, F., North, K.E., McKeown, N.M., Feitosa, M.F., Kanoni, S., Smith, C.E., Garcia, M.E., Tiainen, A., Sonestedt, E., Manichaikul, A., Van Rooij, F.J., Dimitriou, M., Raitakari, O., Pankow, J.S., Djousse, L., Province, M.A., Hu, F.B., Lai, C., Keller, M.F., Perala, M., Rotter, J.I., Hofman, A., Graff, M., Kahonen, M., Mukamal, K., Johansson, I., Ordovas, J.M., Liu, Y., Mannisto, S., Uitterlinden, A.G., Deloukas, P., Seppala, I., Psaty, B.M., Cupples, A.L., Borecki, I.B., Franks, P.W., Arnett, D.K., Nalls, M.A., Eriksson, J.G., Orho-Melander, M., Franco, O.H., Lehtimaki, T., Dedoussis, G.V., Meigs, J.B., Siscovick, D.S. 2015. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 102:1266-1278.

Interpretive Summary: Meat intake, especially that of red meat, is associated with diabetes-related traits such as fasting glucose and insulin. Recently, in the field of nutrition, there has been the notion that the association of any dietary intake with health outcomes might be dependent on genotype. However, this has not been studied in relation to meat intake and diabetes. We found that processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations. These were not modified by genetic loci known to influence fasting glucose or insulin resistance. This information will help us prevent diabetes, for example, we know that overall body mass index may be a more important intervention targets that meat intake.

Technical Abstract: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049-ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063-ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic loci known to influence fasting glucose or insulin resistance. The association of higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations with meat consumption was not modified by an index of glucose- and insulin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms.