|NIXON, LAURA - Lincoln University - New Zealand|
|Morrison Iii, William - Rob|
|BROCKERHOFF, ECKEHARD - New Zealand Forest Research Institute|
|GOLDSON, STEPHEN - Lincoln University - New Zealand|
|ROSTAS, MICHAEL - Lincoln University - New Zealand|
Submitted to: PLoS ONE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/5/2017
Publication Date: 1/17/2018
Citation: Nixon, L.J., Morrison III, W.R., Rice, K.B., Brockerhoff, E.G., Leskey, T.C., Guzman, F., Khrimian, A., Goldson, S., Rostas, M. 2018. Identification of volatiles released by diapausing brown marmorated stink bugs, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). PLoS One. 13(1):e0191223. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191223.
Interpretive Summary: The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), native to Asia, is a devastating invasive species of agricultural and a serious urban pest in North America and parts of Europe. In countries where this species has not become established, efforts are being made to enable detection of hitchhiking, overwintering adults often present in freight. Here, we examined volatiles released by overwintering BMSB that were either left in a state of diapause (or suspended development) or where diapause was disrupted through mechanical agitation. We found that diapausing groups were significantly more likely to release defensive odors than diapause-disrupted groups, though both groups did emit compounds. The predominant compounds consistently found from both groups were tridecane, (E)-2-decenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, with a small abundance of dodecane. Our findings show that diapausing BMSB do release defensive compounds under agitation and suggest that volatile sampling may be feasible to detect overwintering BMSB in freight.
Technical Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an agricultural and urban pest that has become widely established as an invasive species of major concern. This species forms large aggregations when entering diapause, and it is often these aggregations that are found by officials conducting inspections of internationally shipped freight. Identifying the presence of diapausing aggregations of H. halys using their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be a potential means for detecting and intercepting them during international freight inspections. Headspace samples were collected from aggregations of diapausing H. halys using volatile collection traps (VCTs) and solid phase microextraction. The only compound detected in all samples was tridecane, with a small abundance of (E)-2-decenal found in the majority. We also monitored the release of VOCs, primarily defensive odors, emitted by diapausing and diapause-disrupted adult H. halys exposed to mechanical agitation. Diapausing groups were significantly more likely to release defensive odours than diapause-disrupted groups. Headspace samples from groups of both diapausing and diapause-disrupted H. halys, mechanically agitated sufficiently to initiate a defensive response, were collected onto VCTs and analysed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. The predominant compounds consistently found from both groups were tridecane, (E)-2-decenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, with a small abundance of dodecane. Our findings show that diapausing H. halys do release defensive compounds under agitation and suggest that volatile sampling may be feasible to detect H. halys in freight.