Location: Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture ResearchTitle: Fatty acid partitioning varies across fillet regions during sexual maturation in female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Submitted to: Aquaculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/6/2017
Publication Date: 6/1/2017
Citation: Cleveland, B.M., Weber, G.M., Raatz, S.K., Rexroad III, C.E., Picklo, M.J. 2017. Fatty acid partitioning varies across fillet regions during sexual maturation in female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 475:52-60.
Interpretive Summary: Lipids are mobilized from skeletal muscle and visceral tissue to meet the energy demands associated with sexual maturation in female rainbow trout. However, lipid content varies considerably across different regions of the fillet, and it is unknown if certain regions are more susceptible than others to reductions in lipid content during sexual maturation. Therefore, the lipid profile of different fillet regions was analyzed at various stages of development in both fertile (diploid) and sterile (triploid) rainbow trout. Triploid rainbow trout continued to deposit lipids in skeletal muscle and viscera throughout development, including the heart-healthy omega-3 lipids. However, lipid accumulation essentially ceased in the sexually maturing diploid, particularly in the central fillet region and viscera. This study indicates that physiological mechanisms regulating lipid mobilization are regulated differently across fillet regions. Energy-rich saturated fats were preferentially mobilized, suggesting that increasing the energy content of broodstock diets may be helpful to preserving lipid stores.
Technical Abstract: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are commonly reared as diploids (2N, two sets of chromosomes) or triploids (3N, three sets of chromosomes). Sexual maturation in 2N has negative effects on production efficiency, nutrient retention, and fillet quality. On the other hand, 3N female rainbow trout fail to develop gonads, thus enabling an efficient extended growth period when production of larger fillets is desired. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) profiles of various tissue types change throughout development in 2N and 3N rainbow trout, with an emphasis on the response of different fillet regions. Diploid and 3N female rainbow trout were comingled and harvested at 10, 18, and 22 months post hatch (mph) and FA profiles of the viscera, fillet sections, and fillet trimmings were analyzed. Diploid fish were larger (P less than 0.05) than 3N at all sampling periods. Fillet yield was similar between 2N and 3N at 10 and 18 mph, while fillet yield was greater in 3N at 22 mph (P less than 0.05). Fillets were divided into four sections; ventral, central, dorsal and caudal. In the ventral, dorsal, and caudal fillets, FAs continued to accumulate with age (P less than 0.05), regardless of ploidy. However, in the ventral fillet the rate of muscle growth outpaced deposition of saturated FAs (P less than 0.05). In the 2N central fillet the concentration of most FAs decreased between 18 and 22 mph (P less than 0.05) while they continued to increase in 3N. A similar interaction occurred in viscera tissue, in which there was no net accumulation of FAs in 2N between 18 and 22 mph while 3N continued to deposit FA. Saturated FAs were most susceptible to reduced concentrations during sexual maturation, suggesting an increased reliance upon these lipids as a source of energy to support gonad development. In summary, there was a disproportionate mobilization of FAs both across and within tissues, with lipids in the viscera and central fillet being particularly vulnerable to mobilization during sexual maturation.