|PEREZ, DANIEL - University Of Georgia|
|RAJAO, DANIELA - Non ARS Employee|
|ABENTE, EUGENIO - Orise Fellow|
|WALIA, RASNA - Orise Fellow|
|LEWIS, NICOLA - University Of Cambridge|
Submitted to: Veterinary Microbiology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/23/2016
Publication Date: 7/1/2017
Citation: Vincent, A.L., Perez, D.R., Rajao, D., Anderson, T.K., Abente, E.J., Walia, R.R., Lewis, N.S. 2016. Influenza A virus vaccines for swine. Veterinary Microbiology. 206:35-44.
Technical Abstract: Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, the origin, gene constellation, and antigenic makeup of IAV vary greatly on different continents. Vaccination is one means of mitigating the effects of IAV disease, and vaccines are most effective if the strains included closely match the currently circulating strains in pigs. Genetic analyses provide panoramic views of the virus landscape at the sequence level and, thus, can aid in the selection of well-matched swine IAV vaccine strains, but is not sufficient alone. Additionally, a major challenge in selecting appropriate swine IAV vaccine strains is the co-circulation of multiple lineages of viruses in the same region, requiring multivalent or broadly cross-reacting antigens. Due to this complex IAV ecology in swine, new vaccination strategies and vaccine platforms are needed. The hemagglutinin (HA) viral protein is the major target of neutralizing antibodies, which are widely considered to be correlated with protection. Virus variants that are not recognized by previously elicited antibodies can render traditional vaccines that primarily elicit humoral responses ineffective, and therefore result in the need for vaccine strain reformulation and re-vaccination. In the future, new vaccine platforms may be on the market that will provide alternative options to those currently available. Nonetheless, a collaborative approach is needed to improve IAV vaccine strain selection for use in swine.