Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/19/2016
Publication Date: 4/1/2017
Citation: Rice, K.B., Short, B.D., Leskey, T.C. 2017. Development of an attract-and-kill strategy for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): evaluation of attracticidal spheres under laboratory and field conditions. Journal of Economic Entomology. DOI: 10.1093/jee/tow319.
Interpretive Summary: Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is an invasive fruit fly that attacks raspberry, blueberry, strawberry, and cherry. Originally from Asia, SWD has successfully invaded the United States as well as European and South American countries. Currently, weekly insecticide applications are used to combat SWD, potentially resulting in nontarget negative effects on pollinators and predators. Here, we evaluate a behaviorally-based attract-and-kill management technique using attracticidal spheres to reduce SWD infestations in raspberries. Attracticidal spheres are visually attractive to SWD. SWD land on spheres and consume sugar that contain an insecticide toxicant. Spheres containing a number of insecticides including dinotefuran, spinosad, spinetoram, permethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin kill 100% of flies that fed on them within 24 hours. In field trials, attracticidal spheres reduced infestation rates in raspberry plantings, particularly, if all ripe fruit were harvested on a weekly basis. This novel behaviorally-based management strategy holds promise for sustainable management of SWD.
Technical Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive, polyphagous fruit fly that attacks soft-skinned fruits. Originally from Asia, D. suzukii has successfully invaded the United States as well as European and South American countries. Currently, calendar-based insecticide applications are used to combat D. suzukii. Here, we evaluate a behaviorally-based attract-and-kill management technique using attracticidal spheres to reduce D. suzukii infestations in raspberries. In laboratory bioassays aimed at identifying effective toxicants, attracticidal spheres containing dinotefuran at 1.0% a.i. killed 100% of D. suzukii within five minutes. Spinetoram, spinosad, permethrin,lambda-cyhalothrin (CS), and lambda-cyhalothrin (WG), all at 1.0% a.i., killed 100% of D. suzukii within 24 hours. In field trials, statistically equivalent infestation rates were recorded in raspberry plots protected by attracticidal spheres containing 1.0% a.i. spinetoram compared with standard weekly insecticide applications. In field trials using 1.0% a.i. dinotefuran, attracticidal spheres decreased D. suzukii infestations compared with control plots but insecticide applications were more effective at reducing D. suzukii infestations, though differences in harvesting practices likely affected fly population densities and infestation rates in both years. Attracticidal spheres effectively attract and kill D. suzukii, and reduce infestation rates under field conditions indicating that this behavioral strategy holds promise in D. suzukii management.