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Research Project: Childhood Obesity Prevention

Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center

Title: Chickpeas and hummus are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010

Author
item O'neil, Carol
item Nicklas, Theresa
item Fulgoni Iii, Victor

Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/20/2014
Publication Date: 1/22/2014
Citation: O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2014. Chickpeas and hummus are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 4:254. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000254.

Interpretive Summary: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an association between chickpea/hummus consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factor using a nationally representative sample. Chickpea/hummus consumption was associated with better nutrient intake and diet, lower body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and lower risk of obesity and of high WC than seen in non-consumers. There was also a lower likelihood of elevated fasting glucose levels than seen in non-consumers. These findings suggest that additional studies, not just on chickpeas but also on other pulses should be encouraged, as part of an overall health diet.

Technical Abstract: Epidemiologic studies assessing chickpea/hummus consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. The association between chickpea/hummus consumption and nutrient intake, dietary quality, and health biomarkers was examined in adults using data from NHANES 2003-2010. Consumers (n=264) were defined as having consumed any amount of chickpeas/hummus during either of the two 24-hour diet recalls. Means and ANOVA (covariate adjusted) were determined using appropriate sample weights; significance was p<0.01. Diet quality was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI). Covariate adjusted odds ratios were calculated to determine the likelihood that consumption of chickpeas/hummus was associated with a lower risk of physiologic outcomes. Dietary fiber (24.4 +/- 0.7 v 10.1 +/- 0.1 g/d); polyunsaturated fatty acids (19.5 +/- 0.4 v 17.3 +/- 0.1 g/d); vitamins A (787 +/- 42 v 640 +/- 6 RAE mcg/d), E (10.1 +/- 0.5 v 7.5 +/- 1.01 mcg/d), and C (119 +/- 8 v 86.4 +/- 4.3 mg/d); folate (627 +/- 16 v 547 +/- 4 mcg/d);magnesium (385 +/- 13 v 292 +/- 4 mg/d); potassium 3103 +/- 59 v 2697 +/- 12 mg/d); and iron (17.4 +/- 0.5 v 15.8 +/- 0.1 mg/d) intake was higher in consumers. Total fat (76.4 +/- 4.5 v 80.4 +/- 0.3 g/d), saturated fatty acids (SFA) (22.4 +/- 0.7 v 26.6 +/- 0.1 g/d), and cholesterol (227 +/- 8 v 288 +/- 2 mg/d) were lower in chickpea/Hummus consumers. Chickpea/hummus consumers had higher HEI-2005 scores (62.2 +/- 1.3 v 51.9 +/- 0.2). Body Mass Index (26.4 +/- 0.5 v 28.6 +/- 0.1) and waist circumference (92.2 +/- 1.3 v 97.9 +/- 0.3 cm) were lower in consumers. As compared to non-consumers, adult hummus/garbanzo bean consumers were 53% less likely to be obese, 43% less likely to be overweight or obese; a 48% reduced risk of increase WC, and 51% less likely to have an elevated glucose level. Chickpea/hummus consumption was associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality and weight parameters in adults, and consumption should be encouraged.