|UKAEW, SUCHADA - Naresuan University|
|SHI, RUI - Michigan Technological University|
|LEE, JOON HEE - North Dakota State Water Commission|
|PEARLSON, MATTHEW - US Department Of Transportation|
|LEWIS, KRISTIN - US Department Of Transportation|
|BREGNI, LEANNE - Michigan Technological University|
|SHONNARD, DAVID - Michigan Technological University|
Submitted to: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/4/2016
Publication Date: 5/2/2016
Publication URL: https://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5309230
Citation: Ukaew, S., Shi, R., Lee, J., Archer, D.W., Pearlson, M., Lewis, K., Bregni, L., Shonnard, D.R. 2016. Full chain life cycle assessment of greenhouse gases and energy demand for canola-derived jet fuel in North Dakota, United States. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 4(5):2771-2779. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00276.
Interpretive Summary: Oilseeds, including canola, have been identified as a potential source for oils to produce renewable jet fuel. The effects of additional canola production on land use and resulting greenhouse gas emissions and energy demand were investigated using simulation models. The results showed that land use impact and impacts on soil carbon varied greatly depending on the amount of additional canola production needed. The results suggested that canola should be grown in place of fallow to increase soil carbon storage. Other ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions include using anhydrous ammonia as a nitrogen fertilizer source and using co-products produced in the jet fuel conversion process as the hydrogen source needed for the conversion.
Technical Abstract: The success of long-term sustainable biofuel production on agricultural lands is still questionable. To this end, we investigated the effects of crop prices on the changes of agricultural land use for biofuel canola production in three wheat crop management zones in North Dakota. The effects of canola hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand were investigated along with different allocation methods. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) and Alternative Fuel Transportation Optimization Tool (AFTOT) models were used to simulate the LCA inputs for two key stages of the HEFA pathway: cultivation and transportation. From the EPIC model results, increase in canola price had significant impact on predicted farmer decisions to displace food crops with energy crops, and particularly on resulting changes in soil carbon (C). The LCA results suggested that to increase soil C sequestration, energy canola should be grown in the place of the fallow whenever possible to guarantee the long-term soil C sustainability of canola HEFA. Other possible ways to mitigate the GHG emissions included using anhydrous ammonia as nitrogen fertilizer for cultivation and hydrogen integration (use of HEFA co-products in hydrogen production) for HEFA conversion.