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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #322611

Research Project: Food Factors to Prevent Obesity and Related Diseases

Location: Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research

Title: The effect of heat acclimation on sweat microminerals: Artifact of surface contamination

Author
item Ely, Matthew R. - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Kenefick, Robert - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Cheavront, Samuel - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Chinevere, Troy - Consultant
item Lacher, Craig
item Lukaski, Henry - Former ARS Employee
item Montain, Scott - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine

Submitted to: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2011
Publication Date: 10/1/2013
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61640
Citation: Ely, M., Kenefick, R.W., Cheavront, S.N., Chinevere, T., Lacher, C.P., Lukaski, H.C., Montain, S.J. 2013. The effect of heat acclimation on sweat microminerals: Artifact of surface contamination. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 23(5):470-479.

Interpretive Summary: Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of whether the reported HA effect is real or artifact of surface contamination. Purpose: To measure sweat mineral concentrations serially during HA and determine if surface contamination plays a role in the reported mineral reductions. Methods: Calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in sweat obtained from 17 male volunteers using an arm bag on Day 1, 5, and 10 of a HA protocol. To study the role of contamination, sweat was simultaneously (n = 10 subjects) sampled twice daily from a cleaned site (WASH) and unclean site (NO WASH) on the scapular surface. Results: Sweat Ca, Cu, and Mg from Arm Bag trended progressively downward from Day 1 to Day 10 of HA (p = .10–0.25). Micromineral concentrations from the WASH site did not change between Day 1, 5, or 10 (Ca = 0.30 ± 0.12 mmol/L, Cu 0.41 ± 0.53 µmol/L; Zn 1.11 ± 0.80 µmol/L). Surface contamination can confound sweat mineral estimates, as sweat Ca and Cu from NO WASH site were initially higher than WASH (p < .05) but became similar to WASH when sampled serially. Conclusion: Heat acclimation does not confer reductions in sweat Ca, Cu, Mg, or Zn. When the skin surface is not cleaned, mineral residue inflates initial sweat mineral concentrations. Earlier reports of micromineral reductions during HA may have been confounded by interday cleaning variability.

Technical Abstract: Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of whether the reported HA effect is real or artifact of surface contamination. Purpose: To measure sweat mineral concentrations serially during HA and determine if surface contamination plays a role in the reported mineral reductions. Methods: Calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in sweat obtained from 17 male volunteers using an arm bag on Day 1, 5, and 10 of a HA protocol. To study the role of contamination, sweat was simultaneously (n = 10 subjects) sampled twice daily from a cleaned site (WASH) and unclean site (NO WASH) on the scapular surface. Results: Sweat Ca, Cu, and Mg from Arm Bag trended progressively downward from Day 1 to Day 10 of HA (p = .10–0.25). Micromineral concentrations from the WASH site did not change between Day 1, 5, or 10 (Ca = 0.30 ± 0.12 mmol/L, Cu 0.41 ± 0.53 µmol/L; Zn 1.11 ± 0.80 µmol/L). Surface contamination can confound sweat mineral estimates, as sweat Ca and Cu from NO WASH site were initially higher than WASH (p < .05) but became similar to WASH when sampled serially. Conclusion: Heat acclimation does not confer reductions in sweat Ca, Cu, Mg, or Zn. When the skin surface is not cleaned, mineral residue inflates initial sweat mineral concentrations. Earlier reports of micromineral reductions during HA may have been confounded by interday cleaning variability.