Submitted to: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/7/2016
Publication Date: 2/16/2016
Citation: Mott, I.W., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Stonecipher, C.A., Panter, K.E. 2016. Phylogenetic examination of two chemotypes of Lupinus leucophyllus. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 65:57-65.
Interpretive Summary: Lupines are legumes commonly found on rangelands in the western U.S. that may contain alkaloids that could be toxic and or teratogenic to grazing livestock. Two Lupine species Lupinus leucophyllus and Lupinus polyphyllus, are common to the rangelands in southeast WA and northeast OR. In this study, we identified the characteristic alkaloid profiles of these two species and explored the phylogenetic relationship of plants from the different populations using DNA fingerprinting with AFLP markers (individuals with similar DNA fingerprints are genetically similar). Two distinct chemotypes (specific chemical composition) were found among the L. leucophyllyus plants. Chemotype A contains anagyrine, a potent teratogen in cattle, and thus would pose a risk to cause crooked calf syndrome in grazing cattle while Chemotype B would not pose a risk to cause crooked calf syndrome. No such alkaloids were detected in L. polyphyllus. Phylogenetic analysis of L. leucophyllyus chemotypes and L. polyphyllus showed that accessions within each species were genetically similar, as was expected. L. leucopohyllus accessions with the same chemotype that were geographically close together were genetically similar, while accessions that were geographically close, but have different chemotypes were not genetically similar. Improved understanding of the distribution and identification of potentially poisonous Lupines species will help develop grazing strategies that will reduce incidences of livestock poisoning on western U.S. rangelands.
Technical Abstract: Lupines (Lupinus spp.) are a common legume found on western U.S. rangelands. Lupinus spp. may contain quinolizidine and or piperidine alkaloids that could be toxic and or teratogenic to grazing livestock. Lupinus leucohyllus and Lupinus polyphyllus represent important species in the rangelands of southeast WA and northeast OR. The objectives of this study were to identify the characteristic alkaloid profiles of these two species, and to explore the phylogenetic relationship among the different populations using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Two chemotypes were found among the 14 accessions of L. leucophyllyus. Chemotype A contains anagyrine, a potent teratogen in cattle, and thus would pose a risk to cause crooked calf syndrome in grazing cattle, while Chemotype B would not pose a risk to cause crooked calf syndrome. No alkaloids were detected in L. polyphyllus. Finally, we explored the phylogenetic relationship among these accessions which represent the different L. lecucophyllyus chemotypes and L. polyphyllus. Accessions within each species clustered together. Among L. leucopohyllus accessions, we found that accessions with the same chemotype that were geographically proximal were closely grouped in the cladogram; however, accessions that were geographically proximal that represented different chemotypes were not as closely related in the cladogram.