Skip to main content
ARS Home » Southeast Area » Griffin, Georgia » Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #317089

Research Project: Conservation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Plant Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Progress on screening the USDA cultivated peanut germplasm collection for variability in seed weight, seed-coat color, oil content and fatty acid composition

Author
item Wang, Ming
item Tonnis, Brandon
item Pinnow, David
item Barkley, Noelle - International Potato Center
item Pederson, Gary

Submitted to: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/5/2015
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: There are over 10,000 accessions in the USDA peanut germplasm collection. Among them, 8,913 accessions are cultivated peanuts. To determine the variability of seed traits, we initiated a study to observe seed-coat color, measure seed weight, and quantify oil content and fatty acid composition for cultivated peanut accessions. To date, data have been collected from 5,527 accessions for seed-coat color, seed weight, and oil content, but only 4,100 accessions for fatty acid composition due to the longer sample preparation required for GC analysis. The seed-coat colors are classified into eight main categories: pink, red, purple, tan, white, bicolor, striped color, and mixed colors. The 100-seed weight ranged from 21.84g to 160.20g with an average of 48.86g. The seed oil content ranged from 37.6% to 58.8% with an average of 49.2%. Peanut seeds contain eight major fatty acids - oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), arachidic (20:0), behenic (C22:0), lignoceric (C24:0), and gadoleic (C20:1). The average percentages of the eight major fatty acids is as follows: 11.04% (C16:0), 3.32% (C18:0), 45.31% (C18:10), 32.54% (C18:2), 1.60% (C20:0), 1.18% (C20:1), 3.40% (C22:0), and 1.62% (C24:0). The significant variability for oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid was 30.99-80.96%, 4.24-43.33%, 5.83-15.64%, and 1.08-10.36%, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a big potential for manipulation of the levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids for improvement of peanut seed quality. Finally, additional unidentified peaks were observed in certain samples. These extra peaks may result from fatty acid degradation due to long-term seed storage.

Technical Abstract: There are over 10,000 accessions in the USDA peanut germplasm collection. Among them, 8,913 accessions are cultivated peanuts. To determine the variability of seed traits, we initiated a study to observe seed-coat color, measure seed weight, and quantify oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC) for cultivated peanut accessions. To date, data have been collected from 5,527 accessions for seed-coat color, seed weight, and oil content, but only 4,100 accessions for fatty acid composition due to the longer sample preparation required for GC analysis. The seed-coat colors are classified into eight main categories: pink, red, purple, tan, white, bicolor, striped color, and mixed colors. The 100-seed weight ranged from 21.84g to 160.20g with an average of 48.86g. The seed oil content ranged from 37.6% to 58.8% with an average of 49.2%. Peanut seeds contain eight major fatty acids - oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), arachidic (20:0), behenic (C22:0), lignoceric (C24:0), and gadoleic (C20:1) and four minor acids - myristic (C14:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), linolenic (C18:3), and erucic (C22:1) acids. The average percentages of the eight major fatty acids is as follows: 11.04% (C16:0), 3.32% (C18:0), 45.31% (C18:10), 32.54% (C18:2), 1.60% (C20:0), 1.18% (C20:1), 3.40% (C22:0), and 1.62% (C24:0). The significant variability for oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid was 30.99-80.96%, 4.24-43.33%, 5.83-15.64%, and 1.08-10.36%, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a big potential for manipulation of the levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids for improvement of peanut seed quality. Finally, additional unidentified peaks were observed in certain samples. These extra peaks may result from fatty acid degradation due to long-term seed storage.