Location: Fruit and Tree Nut ResearchTitle: Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons Author
|Dolinski, Claudia - State University Of North Fluminense|
|Shapiro Ilan, David|
|Lewis, Edwin - University Of California|
Submitted to: Nematode pathogenesis of insects and other pests - ecology and applied technologies for sustainable plant and crop protection
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/8/2015
Publication Date: 11/1/2015
Citation: Dolinski, C., Shapiro-Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E. 2015. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons. In: Campos-Herrera, R., editor. Nematode pathogenesis of insects and other pests - ecology and applied technologies for sustainable plant and crop protection. Springer International Publishing. p. 207-229.
Interpretive Summary: Beneficial insect-killing nematodes (also called entomopathogenic nematodes) are small round worms that are used as environmentally friendly bio-insecticides. The beneficial nematodes invade insect pests and then reproduce inside of them. These nematodes are applied to control many different kinds of insect pests and are safe to humans and other non-target organisms. In order to successfully use the nematodes as natural pest control agents, we need to know how to apply them efficiently. Usually, the nematodes are applied in water suspensions using sprayers or irrigation systems. Another option is to apply the nematodes in their infected-host cadavers. That means applying the nematodes while they are still in the dead insects that were killed by the nematodes. The dead insect cadavers are applied directly to the site where pests occur and then pest suppression is achieved by the nematode progeny that emerge naturally from the cadavers. Compared to the usual application methods, this cadaver application method has many advantages such as increased nematode dispersal and infection ability. There are, however, drawbacks such as how to apply the cadavers on a large scale. In this chapter we review the development and application of the “cadaver approach” and discuss advantages and disadvantages as well as avenues for future research.
Technical Abstract: Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the infective juveniles (IJs) that emerge from the host cadavers. This type of technology could be especially effective for small- and medium-sized growers, with planted areas up to 10 ha, or for use in flower pots and home orchards, etc. The cost of production for cadaver-based formulations is low because it eliminates the need to capture and concentrate infective juveniles (IJs) and reduces storage costs required in production systems that involve aqueous suspension of IJs. Also, the insect cadaver represents a shelter from environmental extremes such as freezing. However, the insect cadaver approach has a number of downsides that demand further study and adaptation. In this chapter we review the development and application of the “cadaver approach” and discuss advantages and disadvantages as well as avenues for future research.