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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Mayaguez, Puerto Rico » Tropical Crops and Germplasm Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #315007

Research Project: Evaluation and Genetic Analyses of Sorghum Genetic Resources for Key Agronomic Traits

Location: Tropical Crops and Germplasm Research

Title: Assessment of sorghum germplasm from Burkina Faso and South Africa to identify new sources of resistance to grain mold and anthracnose

Author
item Cuevas, Hugo
item Prom, Louis
item Isakeit, Thomas - Texas A&M University
item Radwan, Ghada - Texas A&M University

Submitted to: Crop Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/10/2015
Publication Date: 10/24/2015
Citation: Cuevas, H.E., Prom, L.K., Isakeit, T., Radwan, G. 2015. Assessment of sorghum germplasm from Burkina Faso and South Africa to identify new sources of resistance to grain mold and anthracnose. Crop Protection. 79:43-50.

Interpretive Summary: Sorghum yield can be significantly reduced by the effects of anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). Therefore, a total of 80 exotic germplasm accessions from Burkina Faso (BFA) and South Africa (ZAF) were evaluated for anthracnose and grain mold resistance during two seasons to identify new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases. We identified twelve accessions resistant to anthracnose of which 10 were originally from BFA. Eight accessions from BAF and 1 accession from ZAF exhibited grain mold resistance. The PI 586186 from BAF exhibited resistance to both anthracnose and grain mold, while PI 61666 from ZAF has grain mold resistance and a panicle shape that resembles a standard US commercial type sorghum. The integration of these anthracnose and grain mold resistant germplasm into sorghum breeding programs should aid in the development of new disease-resistant varieties.

Technical Abstract: Sorghum is an important worldwide crop whose yield can be significantly reduced by anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). The identification of new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases is imperative for the development of new sorghum varieties. To this end, a total of 80 exotic germplasm accessions from Burkina Faso (BFA) and South Africa (ZAF) were evaluated for anthracnose and grain mold resistance during two planting periods in 2012 at the USDA-ARS experimental farms in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Twelve accessions were resistant to anthracnose during both evaluations of which 10 are originally from BFA. The anthracnose resistant accessions identified herein had a hypersensitive reaction characterized by lesions having red and purple color. Likewise, 9 accessions exhibited grain mold resistance after being inoculated with a mixture of a conidial suspension of Fusarium thapsinum, F. semitectum, and Curvularia lunata during both periods. Eight of these accessions (PI 586182, PI 586186, PI 647705, PI 647706, PI 647707, PI 647708, PI 647710, and PI 647712) originated from BFA, while one (PI 61666) is from ZAF. The PI 586186 was the only accession that exhibited resistance to both anthracnose and grain mold. The grain mold resistant accession PI 61666 has a panicle shape that resembles a standard US commercial type sorghum and is also photoperiod insensitive. The results presented herein indicate that the BFA germplasm could be an important source for anthracnose and grain mold resistance genes. The integration of these anthracnose and grain mold resistant germplasm into sorghum breeding programs should aid in expanding the genetic diversity and in the development of new resistant varieties.