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Title: Soft kernel durum wheat -- a new bakery ingredient?

Author
item Morris, Craig
item CASPER, J - CARGILL, INCORPORATED
item Kiszonas, Alecia
item FUERST, E - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY
item MURRAY, J - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Cereal Foods World
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/18/2015
Publication Date: 5/8/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60840
Citation: Morris, C.F., Casper, J., Kiszonas, A., Fuerst, E.P., Murray, J. 2015. Soft kernel durum wheat -- a new bakery ingredient?. Cereal Foods World. 60:76-83.

Interpretive Summary: “Bread wheat”, also known as “common wheat” (Triticum aestivum L.), is a leading cereal that sustains humankind. Current worldwide production stands at over 700 million metric tons produced from around 220 million hectares. In contrast, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is grown on about 18 million hectares, producing 35 million metric tons of grain. One of the key differences between these two wheat species is kernel texture (grain “hardness”). Kernel texture is one of the defining factors governing the milling performance, flour quality, processing, and culinary uses of all types of wheat. Bread wheat itself has two major classes of kernel texture, “hard” wheat and “soft” wheat, and both are used for a broad range of yeasted breads, noodles, steam buns, cookies, cakes, and pastries. Durum wheat is used most notably for the production of high quality pasta, and the primary aim of durum wheat milling is the production of a coarse granular meal called semolina. In industrialized countries, durum wheat grain is milled on mills specifically designed to deal with the very hard texture of durum kernels with the goal of producing a maximum yield of nearly bran-free semolina. Durum wheat can only be milled efficiently on dedicated durum mills; conversely, these mills cannot easily accommodate the much softer kernel texture of bread wheats. A bread wheat mill cannot efficiently deal with the very hard kernel texture of durum grain. Compared to common wheat, durum wheat often has equal or better grain yield in heat and drought stressed conditions. Considerable attention worldwide is focusing on how climate change may increase heat and drought while water resources continue to shrink. Consequently, it would be reasonable that durum wheat production should be increasing. However, production of durum wheat is limited not by its “agronomics” but rather in part by its narrow range of culinary end use products, primarily pasta. To overcome the end-use quality constraints of the very hard kernel texture of durum wheat, Morris and co-workers, and Pogna and co-workers successfully transferred the Pina and Pinb genes from bread wheat into durum wheat by transferring a short piece of puroindoline gene-bearing chromosome 5D using non-GMO means. In theory, a broader, more diverse range of end-uses of durum wheat would drive consumer demand and hence production. This article will describe some of the grain, flour, and baking properties of soft kernel durum wheat.

Technical Abstract: “Bread wheat”, also known as “common wheat” (Triticum aestivum L.), is a leading cereal that sustains humankind. Current worldwide production stands at over 700 million metric tons produced from around 220 million hectares. In contrast, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is grown on about 18 million hectares, producing 35 million metric tons of grain. One of the key differences between these two wheat species is kernel texture (grain “hardness”). Kernel texture is one of the defining factors governing the milling performance, flour quality, processing, and culinary uses of all types of wheat. Bread wheat itself has two major classes of kernel texture, “hard” wheat and “soft” wheat, and both are used for a broad range of yeasted breads, noodles, steam buns, cookies, cakes, and pastries. Durum wheat is used most notably for the production of high quality pasta, and the primary aim of durum wheat milling is the production of a coarse granular meal called semolina. In industrialized countries, durum wheat grain is milled on mills specifically designed to deal with the very hard texture of durum kernels with the goal of producing a maximum yield of nearly bran-free semolina. Durum wheat can only be milled efficiently on dedicated durum mills; conversely, these mills cannot easily accommodate the much softer kernel texture of bread wheats. A bread wheat mill cannot efficiently deal with the very hard kernel texture of durum grain. Compared to common wheat, durum wheat often has equal or better grain yield in heat and drought stressed conditions. Considerable attention worldwide is focusing on how climate change may increase heat and drought while water resources continue to shrink. Consequently, it would be reasonable that durum wheat production should be increasing. However, production of durum wheat is limited not by its “agronomics” but rather in part by its narrow range of culinary end use products, primarily pasta. To overcome the end-use quality constraints of the very hard kernel texture of durum wheat, Morris and co-workers, and Pogna and co-workers successfully transferred the Pina and Pinb genes from bread wheat into durum wheat by transferring a short piece of puroindoline gene-bearing chromosome 5D using non-GMO means. In theory, a broader, more diverse range of end-uses of durum wheat would drive consumer demand and hence production. This article will describe some of the grain, flour, and baking properties of soft kernel durum wheat.