|Bauer, Leah - Us Forest Service (FS)|
|Gould, Juli - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS), National Wildlife Center|
|Driesche, Roy Van - University Of Massachusetts|
Submitted to: The Canadian Entomologist
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/8/2015
Publication Date: 5/1/2015
Citation: Bauer, L.S., Duan, J.J., Gould, J.R., Driesche, R.G. 2015. Progress in the classical biological control of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America. The Canadian Entomologist. 147:300-317.
Technical Abstract: Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larval parasitoids and no egg parasitoids. Three major species of hymenopteran parasitoids attack EAB in China: the egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Encyrtidae), and two larval parasitoids Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Eulophidae), and Spathius agrili Yang (Braconidae). Classical biological control of EAB began in the United States in 2007 when the release of these species was approved; release of the larval parasitoids was approved in Canada in 2013. Research is ongoing at study sites in Michigan where the establishment, prevalence, and spread of O. agrili and T. planipennisi have been monitored annually since 2008. Due to lack of establishment, S. agrili is now released below the 40th parallel, and approval is being sought for release of Spathius galinae Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a more cold-adapted EAB larval parasitoid from the Russian Far East. Researchers are optimistic that a complex of introduced and native natural enemies will regulate EAB densities below a tolerance threshold for survival of ash species or genotypes in forested ecosystems.