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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #312868

Research Project: Food Factors to Prevent Obesity and Related Diseases

Location: Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research

Title: Glutathionyl systems and metabolic dysfunction in obesity

Author
item Picklo, Matthew
item Long, Eric - University Of Minnesota
item Dekrey, Emilie

Submitted to: Nutrition Reviews
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/5/2015
Publication Date: 12/7/2015
Citation: Picklo, M.J., Long, E.K., Dekrey, E.E. 2015. Glutathionyl systems and metabolic dysfunction in obesity. Nutrition Reviews. 73(12):858-868.

Interpretive Summary: Oxidative stress is associated with obesity, a problem that affects 1 in 3 Americans. Glutathione (GSH), one of the body’s most abundant antioxidants, plays dual and seemingly contradictory roles in the development of obesity and its co-morbidities like insulin resistance. While GSH is needed for prevention of oxidative damage, depletion of GSH increases energy metabolism and reduces adipose accretion. On the other hand, elevation of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase activity induces insulin resistance. In this review, the literature linking GSH and its related enzymes, glutathione peroxidase glutaredoxins and glutathione-S-transferases, to the regulation of energy metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance will be discussed. The data demonstrate that GSH has a complex metabolic and biochemical fate and is not simply an antioxidant.

Technical Abstract: Oxidative stress is associated with obesity. However, glutathione (GSH), one of the body’s most abundant antioxidants, plays dual and seemingly contradictory roles in the development of obesity and its co-morbidities. While GSH is needed for prevention of oxidative damage, depletion of GSH increases energy metabolism and reduces adipose accretion while elevation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity induces insulin resistance. In this review, the literature linking GSH and its related enzymes, GPx, glutaredoxins (Grx), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST), to the regulation of energy metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance will be discussed. The data demonstrate that GSH has a complex metabolic and biochemical fate and is not simply an antioxidant.