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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Griffin, Georgia » Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #311750

Research Project: Conservation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Plant Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Development of an EMS-induced sesame mutant population for target induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING)

Author
item Wang, Ming
item Tonnis, Brandon
item Pinnow, David
item Morris, John - Brad
item Pederson, Gary

Submitted to: Plant and Animal Genome Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/31/2014
Publication Date: 1/12/2015
Citation: Wang, M.L., Tonnis, B.D., Pinnow, D.L., Morris, J.B., Pederson, G.A. 2015. Development of an EMS-induced sesame mutant population for target induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING).[abstract] Plant and Animal Genome Conference. p.292.

Interpretive Summary: Cultivated sesame is a diploid species (Sesame indicum L., 2n = 2x = 26) with a relatively small nuclear genome size (1C = ~360 x 106 bp) consisting of a considerably low proportion of repetitive sequences. Sesame has a relatively short lifecycle and can produce mature seeds within 80 days after planting. Furthermore, a single sesame plant can easily produce many seeds (over 1,000 seeds per plant). All these features make sesame a good oilseed crop model for genome and genetic studies. Recently, the sesame genome has been successfully sequenced; but there were no mutant resources publically available yet. We have screened the entire U.S. sesame germplasm collection (1,232 accessions) for seed weight, oil content and fatty acid composition by NMR and GC analysis. Variability in seed weight, oil content, and fatty acid composition were quantified from the collection. An elite line was selected from the screening, purified for two generations, and used for EMS-induced mutagenesis. A mutant population was thus generated. Significant plant morphological changes (such as plant height, leaf shape and color, capsule shape, and maturity) were observed from the M2 population in the green house. Chemical analysis is being conducted on the seed quality traits. This mutant population will be useful for both genome research (such as TILLING) and sesame improvement (such as seed quality) in breeding programs. The results from this mutant population will be presented.

Technical Abstract: Cultivated sesame is a diploid species (Sesame indicum L., 2n = 2x = 26) with a relatively small nuclear genome size (1C = ~360 x 106 bp) consisting of a considerably low proportion of repetitive sequences. Sesame has a relatively short lifecycle producing mature seeds within 80 days after planting. Furthermore, a single sesame plant can easily produce many seeds (over 1,000 seeds per plant). All these features make sesame a good oilseed crop model for genome and genetic studies. Recently, the sesame genome has been successfully sequenced; but there were no mutant resources publically available yet. We have screened the entire U.S. sesame germplasm collection (1,232 accessions) for seed weight, oil content and fatty acid composition by NMR and GC analysis. Variability in seed weight, oil content, and fatty acid composition were quantified from the collection. An elite line was selected from the screening, purified for two generations, and used for EMS-induced mutagenesis. A mutant population was thus generated. Significant plant morphological changes (such as plant height, leaf shape and color, capsule shape, and maturity) were observed from the M2 population in the green house. Chemical analysis is being conducted on the seed quality traits. This mutant population will be useful for both genome research (such as TILLING) and sesame improvement (such as seed quality) in breeding programs. The results from this mutant population will be presented.